Book of Mediterranean Trees, Shrubs and Climbers
Latin Common
Abies cephalonica + Grecian Pine
Abies pinsapo + Spanish Fir
Acacia saligna + Blue-leaved wattle
Acacia dealbata + Silver Wattle, Mimosa
Acer monspessulanum + Montpellier Maple
Acer negundo + Box Elder
Albizia julibrissin + Persian Silk Tree, Persian Acacia
Ailanthus altissima + Tree of Heaven
Araucaria araucana + Monkey Puzzle
Araucaria heterophylla + Norfolk Island Pine
Arbutus andrachne + Eastern Strawberry Tree
Arbutus unedo + Strawberry Tree
Aucuba japonica + Aucuba, Spotted Laurel
Bougainvillea + Bougainvillea
Caesalpinia pulcherrima + Barbados Pride
Callistemon + Bottle brishes
Camellia japonica + Camellia
Campsis radicans + Trumpet Vine
Cassia Cassia
Castanea sativa + Sweet Chestnut
Casuarina equisetifolia + She-oak
Catalpa bignonioides + Indian Bean Tree
Cedrus atlantica + Altas Cedar
Cedrus deodara + Deodar
Cedrus libani Cedar of Lebanon
Celtis australis + Southern Nettle Tree
Ceratonia siliqua + Carob, Locust Tree
Cercis siliquastrum + Judas Tree
Cestrum parqui +
Chamaerops humilis Dwarf Fan Palm
Cistus albidus +
Cistus ladanifer + Gum cistus
Cistus monspeliensis + Sun Rose
Citrus Citrus
Citrus aurantium Citrus
Clematis cirrhosa
Clematis flammula +
Cotinus coggygria + Wig Tree, Smoke Tree
Crataegus azarolus + Azarole
Cupressus sempervirens + Italian Cypress
Cytisus scoparius Common Broom
Datura stramonium + Thorn apple
Delonix regia + Flamboyant
Diospyros kaki + Persimmon
Diospyros lotus + Date Plum
Dracaena draco + Canarian Dragon Tree
Elaeagnus angustifolia + Oleaster
Ephedra fragilis + Joint Pine
Erica arborea Tree Heather
Eriobotrya japonica + Loquat
Erythrina crista-galli + Coral Tree
Eucalyptus robusta Swamp Mahogony
Eucalyptus globulus Tasmanian Blue Gum
Euphorbia canariensis + Canary Island Spurge
Euphorbia dendroides + Tree Spurge
Euphorbia pulcherrima + Poinsettia
Fraxinus ornus + Manna Ash, Flowering Ash
Ficus benghalensis Banyan Tree
Ficus benjamina + Weeping Fig
Ficus carica + Common fig
Ficus elastica + Indian Rubber Tree
Ficus sycamorus Sycamore Fig
Gardenia jasminoides + Gardinia
Gleditsia triacanthos + Honey Locust
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis + Hibiscus
Hibiscus syriacus + Rose Mallow
Hyphaene thebaica + Doum Palm
Jacaranda mimosifolia + Jacaranda
Jasminum fruticans
Jasminum grandiflorum + Jasmine
Jasminum odoratissimum
Jasminum officinale + Jasmine
Juglans regia + Persian Walnut
Juniperus oxycedrus Prickly Juniper
Juniperus phoenicea Phoenician Juniper
Lagerstroemia indica + Cape Myrtle
Lantana camara + Lantana
Laurus nobilis + Bay tree
Ligustrum lucidum Glossy Privet, Chinese Privet
Livistona australis + Cabbage-tree palm
Lonicera etrusca + Honeysuckle
Magnolia grandiflora + Evergreen Magnolia
Melia azedarach + Indian Bead Tree, Persian Lilac
Morus alba + White Mulberry
Morus nigra + Black Mulberry
Myrtus communis + Myrtle
Nerium oleander + Oleander
Nicotiana glauca + Tree Tobacco
Olea europaea + Olive Tree
Opuntia ficus-indica + Prickly Pear
Passiflora caerulea + Passion Flower
Paulownia tomentosa + Paulonia, Foxglove Tree
Phaedranthus buccinatorius
Phillyrea angustifolia
Phillyrea latifolia Green Olive Tree
Phoenix canariensis + Canary Date Palm
Phoenix dactylifera + Date Palm
Picea omorika Serbian Spruce
Picea orientalis Oriental Spruce
Pinus halepensis + Aleppo Pine
Pinus nigra Austrian Pine
Pinus pinaster + Maritime Pine
Pinus pinea Stone Pine, Umbrella Pine
Pistacia lentiscus + Mastic
Pistacia terebinthus Turpentine Tree
Pistacia vera + Pistacio
Pittosporum tobira + Australian Laurel
Platanus orientalis + Oriental Plane
Platanus acerifolia + London Plane
Plumbago capensis + Plumbago
Paliurus spina-christi + Christ's Thorns
Populus nigra 'Italica' Lombardy Poplar
Prunus armeniaca Apricot
Prunus dulcis Almond
Prunus lusitanica Portugal Laurel
Prunus persica Peach
Punica granatum Pomegranate
Pyrostegia venusta + Orange trumpetvine
Quercus cerris + Turkey Oak
Quercus coccifera + Kermes Oak
Quercus ilex Holm Oak
Quercus macrolepis + Valonia oak
Quercus suber + Cork Oak
Rhamnus alaternus + Mediterranean Blackthorn
Ricinus communis + Castor Oil Plant
Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemary
Roystonea regia Royal Palm
Styphnolobium japonicum + Pagoda Tree, Scholar's Tree
Schinus molle + Pepper Tree, Peruvian Mastic Tree
Spartium junceum Spanish Broom
Tamarix aphylla Tamerisk
Tamarix gallica + Tamerisk
Tecomaria capensis Cape Honeysuckle
Platycladus orientalis + Chinese Thuja
Viburnum tinus + Laurrestinus
Vinca major Greater Periwinkle
Vitex agnus-castus + Chaste Tree
Vitis vinifera + Grape Vine
Washingtonia filifera + Fan-leaved Palm
Ziziphus jujube Common Jujube
Juniperus communis Common Juniper
Robinia pseudoacacia Robinia, False Acacia
Calicotome spinosa + Thorny Broom
Liquidambar orientalis Turkish sweetgum
Bauhinia variegata + Orchid tree
Leucaena leucocephala
Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Ficus retusa
Washingtonia robusta
Syagrus romanzoffiana
Pinus brutia
Grevillea robusta + Silky Oak
Ceiba speciosa +
Cupressus arizonica
Ligustrum japonicum
Prunus nigra
Thevetia peruvina
Taxus baccata
Malus floribundo
Prunus cerasifera-nigra
Abies cephalonica  Grecian Pine
Family Pinaceae
Genus Abies  [A-beez]  ancient L. name, possibly from L. abeo depart, i.e. from the ground, referring to the great height attained by some species.(1)
Species cephalonica   of Cephalonia
Properties tree, evergreen, coniferous
Abies cephalonica or Greek fir is a fir native to the mountains of Greece, primarily in the Peloponnesos and the island of Kefallonia, intergrading with the closely related Bulgarian fir further north in the Pindus mountains of northern Greece. It is a medium-size evergreen coniferous tree growing to 25–35 metres (82–115 ft) – rarely 40 m (130 ft) – tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in). It occurs at altitudes of 900–1,700 m (3,000–5,600 ft), on mountains with a rainfall of over 1,000 millimetres (39 in). The leaves are needle-like, flattened, 1.5–3.0 cm (0.6–1.2 in) long and 2 mm (0.08 in) wide by 0.5 mm (0.02 in) thick, glossy dark green above, and with two blue-white bands of stomata below. The tip of the leaf is pointed, usually fairly sharply but sometimes with a blunt tip, particularly on slow-growing shoots on older trees. The cones are 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long and 4 cm (1.6 in) broad, with about 150–200 scales, each scale with an exserted bract and two winged seeds; they disintegrate when mature to release the seeds. It is also closely related to Nordmann fir to the east in northern Turkey.
tree
foliage
Index
Abies pinsapo  Spanish Fir
Family Pinaceae
Genus Abies  [A-beez]  ancient L. name, possibly from L. abeo depart, i.e. from the ground, referring to the great height attained by some species.(1)
Species pinsapo   possibly from Spanish pino meaning pine and sapo meaning fir being a fir in the pine family
Properties tree, evergreen, coniferous
Abies pinsapo (Spanish fir) is a species of fir native to southern Spain and northern Morocco. Related to other species of Mediterranean firs, it is considered the Andalusian National Tree, and is native to the Andalusian mountains. In Spain, it appears at altitudes of 900–1,800 metres (3,000–5,900 ft) in the Sierra de Grazalema in the province of Cádiz and the Sierra de las Nieves and Sierra Bermeja, both near Ronda in the province of Málaga. In Morocco, it is limited to the Rif Mountains at altitudes of 1,400–2,100 metres (4,600–6,900 ft) on Jebel Tissouka and Jebel Tazaot.
foliage and pollen cones
tree
Index
Acacia saligna  Blue-leaved wattle
Synonyms  Acacia cyanophylla
Family Fabaceae
Genus Acacia  [a-KA-she-a]  Gr akazo to sharpen or Gr akakia the Egyptian Thorn A. arabica
Species saligna   
Properties tree
Acacia saligna, commonly known by various names including coojong, golden wreath wattle, orange wattle, blue-leafed wattle, Western Australian golden wattle, and, in Africa, Port Jackson willow, is a small tree in the family Fabaceae. Native to Australia, it is widely distributed throughout the south west corner of Western Australia, extending north as far as the Murchison River, and east to Israelite Bay.
flowers
tree
Index
Acacia dealbata  Silver Wattle, Mimosa
Family Fabaceae
Genus Acacia  [a-KA-she-a]  Gr akazo to sharpen or Gr akakia the Egyptian Thorn A. arabica
Species dealbata  [de-al-BA-ta]  whitened - of the foliage
Properties tree,shrub, evergreen
Acacia dealbata (known as silver wattle, blue wattle or mimosa) is a species of Acacia, native to southeastern Australia in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and the Australian Capital Territory and widely introduced in Mediterranean, warm temperate, and highland tropical landscapes.
tree
bark
leaves
fruit
flowers
Index
Acer monspessulanum  Montpellier Maple
Family Sapindaceae
Genus Acer  [A-ser]  Classical L. name, possibly from L. acer, hard or sharp, the wood once having been used for writing tablets.(1)
Species monspessulanum   
Properties tree,shrub, deciduous
Acer monspessulanum (Montpellier maple) is a species of maple native to the Mediterranean region from Morocco and Portugal in the west, to Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel in the east, and north to the Jura Mountains in France and the Eifel in Germany.
leaves
seeds
tree
bark
Index
Acer negundo  Box Elder
Family Sapindaceae
Genus Acer  [A-ser]  Classical L. name, possibly from L. acer, hard or sharp, the wood once having been used for writing tablets.(1)
Species negundo   from the Sanskrit and Bengali word nirgundi, which was used as negundo in the naming of Vitex negundo and later for Acer negundo that has a leaf similar to that of Vitex negundo.
Properties tree
Acer negundo is a species of maple native to North America. Box elder, boxelder maple, ash-leaved maple, and maple ash are its most common names in the United States; in Britain and Ireland it is also known as ashleaf maple.
fruit
seeds
bark
tree
Index
Albizia julibrissin  Persian Silk Tree, Persian Acacia
Family Fabaceae
Genus Albizia    
Species julibrissin   
Properties tree, deciduous
Albizia julibrissin (Persian silk tree, pink silk tree) is a species of tree in the family Fabaceae, native to southwestern and eastern Asia. The genus is named after the Italian nobleman Filippo degli Albizzi, who introduced it to Europe in the mid-18th century, and it is sometimes incorrectly spelled Albizzia. The specific epithet julibrissin is a corruption of the Persian word gul-i abrisham (گل ابریشم) which means "silk flower" (from gul گل "flower" + abrisham ابریشم "silk").
bark
flowers
seeds
night leaves
Index
Ailanthus altissima  Tree of Heaven
Family Simaroubaceae
Genus Ailanthus  [a-LAN-thus]  from the native Moluccan name, ailanto signifying tall enough to reach the sky
Species altissima   L. highest
Properties tree
Ailanthus altissima /eɪˈlænθəs ælˈtɪsᵻmə/, commonly known as tree of heaven, ailanthus, or in Standard Chinese as chouchun (Chinese: 臭椿; pinyin: chòuchūn; literally: "foul smelling tree"), is a deciduous tree in the Simaroubaceae family. It is native to both northeast and central China, as well as Taiwan. Unlike other members of the genus Ailanthus, it is found in temperate climates rather than the tropics. The tree grows rapidly and is capable of reaching heights of 15 metres (49 ft) in 25 years. However, the species is also short lived and rarely lives more than 50 years, though its remarkable suckering ability makes it possible for this tree to clone itself indefinitely and live considerably longer (since they are linked to the mother tree and thus partly fed by it, the suckers are less vulnerable than the seedlings and can grow faster). In China, the tree of heaven has a long and rich history. It was mentioned in the oldest extant Chinese dictionary and listed in countless Chinese medical texts for its purported ability to cure ailments ranging from mental illness to baldness. The roots, leaves and bark are still used today in traditional Chinese medicine, primarily as an astringent. The tree has been grown extensively both in China and abroad as a host plant for the ailanthus silkmoth, a moth involved in silk production. Ailanthus has become a part of western culture as well, with the tree serving as the central metaphor and subject matter of the best-selling American novel A Tree Grows in Brooklyn by Betty Smith. The tree was first brought from China to Europe in the 1740s and to the United States in 1784. It was one of the first trees brought west during a time when chinoiserie was dominating European arts, and was initially hailed as a beautiful garden specimen. However, enthusiasm soon waned after gardeners became familiar with its suckering habits and its foul smelling odour. Despite this, it was used extensively as a street tree during much of the 19th century. Outside Europe and the United States the plant has been spread to many other areas beyond its native range. In a number of these, it has become an invasive species due to its ability both to colonise disturbed areas quickly and to suppress competition with allelopathic chemicals. It is considered a noxious weed in Australia, the United States, New Zealand and many countries of central, eastern and southern Europe. The tree also resprouts vigorously when cut, making its eradication difficult and time-consuming. In many urban areas, it has acquired the derisive nicknames of "ghetto palm", "stink tree", and "tree of Hell".
tree
flowers
test
seeds
bark
Index
Araucaria araucana  Monkey Puzzle
Family Araucariaceae
Genus Araucaria  [a-raw-KAR-e-a]  from araucanos name of of the Indian tribe of the Province of Araneo, Chile where A. araucana was first found
Species araucana   from the the Indian tribe name (renamed from imbricata)
Properties tree
Araucaria araucana (commonly called the monkey puzzle tree, monkey tail tree, Chilean pine, or pehuén) is an evergreen tree growing to 1-1.5 m (3–5 ft) in diameter and 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height. It is native to central and southern Chile and western Argentina. Araucaria araucana is the hardiest species in the conifer genus Araucaria. Because of the longevity of this species, it is described as a living fossil. It is also the national tree of Chile. Its conservation status was changed to Endangered by the IUCN in 2013 due to the dwindling population.
tree
green pollen cones
foliage
Index
Araucaria heterophylla  Norfolk Island Pine
Family Araucariaceae
Genus Araucaria  [a-raw-KAR-e-a]  from araucanos name of of the Indian tribe of the Province of Araneo, Chile where A. araucana was first found
Species heterophylla   
Properties tree
Araucaria heterophylla (synonym A. excelsa) is a member of the ancient and now disjointly distributed family Araucariaceae. As its vernacular name Norfolk Island pine implies, the tree is endemic to Norfolk Island, a small island in the Pacific Ocean between New Zealand and New Caledonia, about 1440km east of Sydney, Australia. The genus Araucaria occurs across the South Pacific, especially concentrated in New Caledonia (about 700 km due north of Norfolk Island) where 13 closely related and similar-appearing species are found. It is sometimes called a star pine, triangle tree or living Christmas tree, due to its symmetrical shape as a sapling, although it is not a true pine.
tree
Index
Arbutus andrachne  Eastern Strawberry Tree
Family Ericaceae
Genus Arbutus  [AR-but-us]  L. name, for A.unedo, perhaps derived from Celtic arboise, rough-fruited
Species andrachne   
Properties tree
Arbutus andrachne, commonly called the Greek strawberry tree, is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the family Ericaceae, native to the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and southwestern Asia.
bark
tree
flowers
fruit
Index
Arbutus unedo  Strawberry Tree
Family Ericaceae
Genus Arbutus  [AR-but-us]  L. name, for A.unedo, perhaps derived from Celtic arboise, rough-fruited
Species unedo  [u-NED-o or u-NE-do]  Pliny derives name from unus, one and edo to eat i.e. to eat only one since taste is exceedingly bland
Properties tree
Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree) is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the family Ericaceae, native to the Mediterranean region and western Europe north to western France and Ireland. Due to its presence in southwest and northwest Ireland, it is known as either "Irish strawberry tree", or cain or cane apple (from the Gaelic name for the tree, caithne), or sometimes "Killarney strawberry tree".
flowers
foliage
bark
tree and fruit
fruit and flowers
Index
Aucuba japonica  Aucuba, Spotted Laurel
Family Garryaceae
Genus Aucuba    
Species japonica  [jap-ON-ik-a]  of Japan
Properties shrub, dioecious
Aucuba japonica, commonly called spotted laurel, Japanese laurel, Japanese aucuba or gold dust plant (U.S.), is a shrub (1–5 m, 3.3–16.4 ft) native to rich forest soils of moist valleys, thickets, by streams and near shaded moist rocks in China, Korea, and Japan. This is the species of Aucuba commonly seen in gardens - often in variegated form. The leaves are opposite, broad lanceolate, 5–8 cm (2.0–3.1 in) long and 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) wide. Aucuba japonica are dioecious, they have separate male and female plants. The flowers are small, 4–8 mm (0.16–0.31 in) diameter, with four purplish-brown petals; they are produced in clusters of 10-30 in a loose cyme. The fruit is a red berry approximately 1 cm (0.39 in) in diameter, which is avoided by birds.
leaves
shrub
berries
Index
Bougainvillea  Bougainvillea
Family Nyctaginaceae
Genus Bougainvillea    
Species    
Properties climber
Bougainvillea (/ˌbuːɡᵻnˈvɪliə/ or /ˌboʊɡᵻnˈvɪliə/) is a genus of thorny ornamental vines, bushes, and trees with flower-like spring leaves near its flowers. Different authors accept between four and 18 species in the genus. They are native plants of South America from Brazil west to Peru and south to southern Argentina (Chubut Province). Bougainvillea are also known as buganvilla (Spain), bugambilia (Mexico, Guatemala, Cuba, Philippines), pokok bunga kertas (Indonesia), "'bougenville"' (Pakistan), Napoleón (Honduras), veranera (Colombia, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Panama), trinitaria (Colombia, Panama, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic & Venezuela), Santa Rita (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) or papelillo (northern Peru). The vine species grow anywhere from 1 to 12 m (3 to 40 ft.) tall, scrambling over other plants with their spiky thorns. The thorns are tipped with a black, waxy substance. They are evergreen where rainfall occurs all year, or deciduous if there is a dry season. The leaves are alternate, simple ovate-acuminate, 4–13 cm long and 2–6 cm broad. The actual flower of the plant is small and generally white, but each cluster of three flowers is surrounded by three or six bracts with the bright colours associated with the plant, including pink, magenta, purple, red, orange, white, or yellow. Bougainvillea glabra is sometimes referred to as "paper flower" because the bracts are thin and papery. The fruit is a narrow five-lobed achene. Bougainvillea are relatively pest-free plants, but they may suffer from worms, snails and aphids. The larvae of some Lepidoptera species also use them as food plants, for example the giant leopard moth (Hypercompe scribonia).
flower and bracts
leaves
Index
Caesalpinia pulcherrima  Barbados Pride
Family Fabaceae
Genus Caesalpinia    
Species pulcherrima  [pul-KER-rim-a]  most beautiful
Properties shrub
Caesalpinia pulcherrima is a species of flowering plant in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to the tropics and subtropics of the Americas. It could be native to the West Indies, but its exact origin is unknown due to widespread cultivation. Common names for this species include poinciana, peacock flower, red bird of paradise, Mexican bird of paradise, dwarf poinciana, pride of Barbados, and flamboyant-de-jardin. The Hawaiian name for this plant is ʻOhai Aliʻi.
tree
flower
flowers and foliage
beans
Index
Callistemon  Bottle brishes
Family Myrtaceae
Genus Callistemon    
Species    
Properties shrub
Callistemon /ˌkælᵻˈstiːmən/ is a genus of shrubs in the family Myrtaceae, first described as a genus in 1814. The entire genus is endemic to Australia but widely cultivated in many other regions and naturalised in scattered locations. Their status as a separate taxon is in doubt, some authorities accepting that the difference between callistemons and melaleucas is not sufficient for them to be grouped in a separate genus.
flower
shrub
Index
Camellia japonica  Camellia
Family Theaceae
Genus Camellia    
Species japonica  [jap-ON-ik-a]  of Japan
Properties shrub
Camellia japonica (the Japanese camellia) is one of the best known species of the genus Camellia. Sometimes called the Rose of winter, it belongs to the Theaceae family. It is the official state flower of Alabama. There are thousands of cultivars of C. japonica in cultivation, with many different colors and forms of flowers. In the wild, it is found in mainland China (Shandong, east Zhejiang), Taiwan, southern Korea and southern Japan. It grows in forests, at altitudes of around 300–1,100 metres (980–3,610 ft).
flower
shrub
Index
Campsis radicans  Trumpet Vine
Family Bignoniaceae
Genus Campsis    
Species radicans   
Properties climber
Campsis radicans (trumpet vine or trumpet creeper, also known in North America as cow itch vine or hummingbird vine), is a species of flowering plant of the family Bignoniaceae, native to the eastern United States and naturalized in parts of the western United States as well as in Ontario, parts of Europe, and scattered locations in Latin America. Growing to 10 m (33 ft), it is a vigorous, deciduous woody vine, notable for its showy trumpet-shaped flowers. It inhabits woodlands and riverbanks, and is also a popular garden subject.
flower
plant
bean
Index
Cassia  Cassia
Family
Genus Cassia    
Species    
Properties tree
Index
Castanea sativa  Sweet Chestnut
Family Fagaceae
Genus Castanea  [kas-TA-nea-a]  from Gr kastanun, a chestnut, said to be after Kastana, a district in Thessaly
Species sativa  [SAT-i-va]  cultivated i.e. for crops
Properties tree
Castanea sativa, or sweet chestnut, is a species of flowering plant in the family Fagaceae, native to Europe and Asia Minor, and widely cultivated throughout the temperate world. A substantial, long-lived deciduous tree, it produces an edible seed, the chestnut, which has been used in cooking since ancient times.
bark
fruit
chestnuts
Index
Casuarina equisetifolia  She-oak
Family Casuarinaceae
Genus Casuarina    
Species equisetifolia   
Properties tree
Casuarina equisetifolia or Australian pine tree is a she-oak species of the genus Casuarina. The native range extends from Burma and Vietnam throughout Malaysia east to French Polynesia, New Caledonia, and Vanuatu, and south to Australia (north of Northern Territory, north and east Queensland, and north-eastern New South Wales). Populations are also found in Madagascar, but it is doubtful if this is within the native range of the species. The species has been introduced to the Southern United States and West Africa. It is an invasive species in Florida and South Africa.
leaves
tree
cone
Index
Catalpa bignonioides  Indian Bean Tree
Family Bignoniaceae
Genus Catalpa  [kat-Al-pa]  corruption of 'Catawba', the name of the North American Indian tribe that formerly ocupied Georgia and the Carolinas
Species bignonioides  [big-no-ne-OY-des]  Bignonia-like
Properties tree
Catalpa bignonioides is a species of Catalpa that is native to the southeastern United States in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Common names include southern catalpa, cigartree, and Indian-bean-tree.
flowers
bark
leaves
Index
Cedrus atlantica  Altas Cedar
Family Pinaceae
Genus Cedrus  [SE-drus]  from Gr. Kedros, the Cedar of Pliny. alluding to the fragrance
Species atlantica  [at-LAN-ti-ka]  of the Atlas mountains
Properties tree
Cedrus atlantica, the Atlas cedar, is a cedar native to the Atlas Mountains of Morocco (Middle Atlas, High Atlas), to the Rif, and to the Tell Atlas in Algeria. A majority of the modern sources treat it as a distinct species Cedrus atlantica, but some sources consider it a subspecies of Lebanon cedar (C. libani subsp. atlantica).
tree
flower and foliage
leaves
cones
Index
Cedrus deodara  Deodar
Family Pinaceae
Genus Cedrus  [SE-drus]  from Gr. Kedros, the Cedar of Pliny. alluding to the fragrance
Species deodara  [de-o-DAR-a]  from the Indian state Deodar
Properties tree
Cedrus deodara (deodar cedar, Himalayan cedar, or deodar/devdar/devadar/devadaru; Sanskrit देवदारु devadāru, Hindi: देवदार devadār, दारूक dāruk; Urdu: ديودار/ دیار deodār; Kannada:ದೇವಧಾರ Chinese: 雪松 xuě sōng) is a species of cedar native to the western Himalayas in eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan (especially in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and India (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Darjeeling and Uttarakhand states), southwesternmost Tibet in (China) and western Nepal, occurring at 1,500–3,200 m (4,921–10,499 ft) altitude. It is a large evergreen coniferous tree reaching 40–50 m (131–164 ft) tall, exceptionally 60 m (197 ft) with a trunk up to 3 m (10 ft) in diameter. It has a conic crown with level branches and drooping branchlets. The leaves are needle-like, mostly 2.5–5 cm (0.98–1.97 in) long, occasionally up to 7 cm (2.8 in) long, slender (1 mm (0.039 in) thick), borne singly on long shoots, and in dense clusters of 20–30 on short shoots; they vary from bright green to glaucous blue-green in colour. The female cones are barrel-shaped, 7–13 cm (2.8–5.1 in) long and 5–9 cm (2.0–3.5 in) broad, and disintegrate when mature (in 12 months) to release the winged seeds. The male cones are 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 in) long, and shed their pollen in autumn.
foliage
tree
Index
Cedrus libani  Cedar of Lebanon
Family Pinaceae
Genus Cedrus  [SE-drus]  from Gr. Kedros, the Cedar of Pliny. alluding to the fragrance
Species libani  [LIB-an-i]  of Mount Lebanon
Properties tree
Cedrus libani is a species of cedar native to the mountains of the Mediterranean region.
Index
Celtis australis  Southern Nettle Tree
Family Cannabaceae
Genus Celtis    L. Pliny applied to an urelated species
Species australis   southern
Properties tree
Celtis australis, commonly known as the European nettle tree, Mediterranean hackberry, lote tree, or honeyberry, is a deciduous tree native to southern Europe, North Africa, and Asia Minor. The tree was introduced to England in 1796.
immature fruit
bark
tree
Index
Ceratonia siliqua  Carob, Locust Tree
Family Fabaceae
Genus Ceratonia    
Species siliqua   
Properties tree
Ceratonia siliqua, commonly known as the carob tree, St John's-bread, or locust bean (not to be confused with the African locust bean) is a species of flowering evergreen shrub or tree in the pea family, Fabaceae. It is widely cultivated for its edible pods, and as an ornamental tree in gardens. The ripe, dried pod is often ground to carob powder, which is used to replace cocoa powder. Carob bars, an alternative to chocolate bars, are often available in health-food stores. The carob tree is native to the Mediterranean region, including Southern Europe, Northern Africa, the larger Mediterranean islands, the Levant and Middle-East of Western Asia into Iran; and the Canary Islands and Macaronesia. The carat, a unit of mass for gemstones, and of purity for gold, takes its name, indirectly, from the Greek word for a carob seed, kerátion.
ripe pods
green pods
tree
male flowers open
Index
Cercis siliquastrum  Judas Tree
Family Fabaceae
Genus Cercis  [SER-sis]  an ancient name given to the Judas Tree by the Greek philosopher Theophrastus.
Species siliquastrum  [sil-e-KWAS-trum]  from siliqua, a botantic name for pods having a partition between the seeds
Properties tree
Cercis siliquastrum, commonly known as the Judas tree or Judas-tree, is a small deciduous tree from Southern Europe and Western Asia which is noted for its prolific display of deep pink flowers in spring.
tree
flowering branch
flowers and beans
flowers
leaves
Index
Cestrum parqui  
Family Solanaceae
Genus Cestrum    
Species parqui   
Properties shrub
Cestrum parqui, commonly known as green cestrum, green poison berry, Chilean cestrum or willow-leaved jessamine, and is sometimes incorrectly referred to as deadly nightshade, is a species of flowering plant in the family Solanaceae that is native to central and South America. It is an upright, straggly, woody deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub 2–3 metres (6 ft 7 in–9 ft 10 in) tall with one or more brittle green stems. Light green leaves are alternate and shiny green to 12 cm (5 in) long, giving off a foul rubbery smell when crushed. It has sprays of small, fragrant, tubular yellow-green flowers approximately 2.5 cm long on the ends of the stems, flowering from late spring to autumn. These produce clusters of small, black egg shaped berries during summer to autumn. Green cestrum is highly attractive to birds, and seedlings are often found growing under perching trees, along fence lines and on creek banks. It is also dispersed by water. Spread by birds, it invades gardens, rural lands and bushland. It has a deep and persistent taproot. This weed is considered a major problem because of its toxicity to livestock (especially cattle) and poultry which eat green cestrum when there is a shortage of other feed. All parts of the plant material, stems, leaves, berries and even partly burnt roots pose a serious threat to livestock. Death is usually rapid and painful. The plant is also known to be toxic to other livestock and humans. This species is defined as a noxious plant in New South Wales under the Noxious Weeds Act 1993 and all plants must be destroyed. In cultivation in the United Kingdom, this plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
flowers
plant
Index
Chamaerops humilis  Dwarf Fan Palm
Family Arecaceae
Genus Chamaerops    
Species humilis   
Properties tree
Chamaerops is a genus of flowering plants in the palm family Arecaceae. The only currently fully accepted species is Chamaerops humilis, variously called European fan palm, or the Mediterranean dwarf palm. It is one of the more cold-hardy palms used in landscaping in temperate climates.
Index
Cistus albidus  
Family Cistaceae
Genus Cistus  [SIS-tus]  Ancient Gr. name for the Rock Rose
Species albidus  [AL-bid-us]  nearly white - of the leaves
Properties shrub
Cistus albidus, the grey-leaved cistus, is a shrubby species of flowering plant in the family Cistaceae, with pink to purple flowers, native to south-western Europe and western north Africa.
leaves and flowers
shrub
Index
Cistus ladanifer  Gum cistus
Family Cistaceae
Genus Cistus  [SIS-tus]  Ancient Gr. name for the Rock Rose
Species ladanifer   yielding labdanum
Properties shrub
Cistus ladanifer is a species of flowering plant in the family Cistaceae. It is native to the western Mediterranean region. Common names include gum rockrose, laudanum, labdanum, common gum cistus, and brown-eyed rockrose. It is a shrub growing 1–2.5 m (3 ft 3 in–8 ft 2 in) tall and wide. The leaves are evergreen, lanceolate, 3–10 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, dark green above and paler underneath. The flowers are 5–8 cm diameter, with 5 papery white petals, usually with a red to maroon spot at the base, surrounding the yellow stamens and pistils. The whole plant is covered with the sticky exudate of fragrant resin, the source of labdanum, used in herbal medicine and perfumery. C. ladanifer is particularly well suited to the Continentalized Mediterranean climate, standing both long summer droughts and cold weather. It is an extremely aggressive plant which has taken over much of former farmland and grasslands in the mountain regions of central Spain and much of southern Portugal. In Spanish it is known as Jara pringosa meaning "sticky shrub". In Portuguese it is known as "esteva". It has been found to have mycorrhizal associations with Boletus edulis, Boletus rhodoxanthus, and Laccaria laccata.
plant
foliage
flower
Index
Cistus monspeliensis  Sun Rose
Family Cistaceae
Genus Cistus  [SIS-tus]  Ancient Gr. name for the Rock Rose
Species monspeliensis   mon-spe-le-EN-sis
Properties shrub
Cistus monspeliensis is a species of rockrose known by the common name Montpellier cistus. It is native to southern Europe and northern Africa, in the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub ecosystems of matorral—maquis shrublands.
flower
plant
foliage
Index
Citrus  Citrus
Family Aurantioideae
Genus Citrus    
Species    
Properties tree
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae. Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops like oranges, lemons, grapefruit, and limes. The most recent research indicates an origin in Australia, New Caledonia and New Guinea. Some researchers believe that the origin is in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeast India, Burma (Myanmar) and the Yunnan province of China, and it is in this region that some commercial species such as oranges, mandarins, and lemons originated. Citrus fruit has been cultivated in an ever-widening area since ancient times.
Index
Citrus aurantium  Citrus
Family Rutaceae
Genus Citrus    
Species aurantium   
Properties tree
Index
Clematis cirrhosa  
Family Ranunculaceae
Genus Clematis    
Species cirrhosa   
Properties climber
Clematis cirrhosa is a species of flowering plants in the Ranunculaceae. It includes the 'Freckles', 'Wisley Cream' and 'Jingle Bells' cultivars. It is also one of 8 subdivisions in the Thorncroft Clematis catalogue, published in 2000.
Index
Clematis flammula  
Family Ranunculaceae
Genus Clematis    
Species flammula   
Properties climber
Clematis flammula is a temperate liana known by the common name fragrant virgin's bower. It is native to southern Europe and northern Africa, but it is cultivated worldwide as an ornamental plant in gardens. The woody vine bears fragrant white flowers and small green achenes. When the flowers are newly opened they have a strong sweet almond fragrance. The vine grows in a tangled mass that is heavily sprinkled with flowers throughout the warmer months. It is popular with gardeners as a decoration along fences and trellises, or as ground cover. If the vine has no other plants or structures to climb on, it will climb on itself, forming a large, densely tangled bush. The plant sends out many shoots and can reach over five metres in height. It is sweet-smelling but poisonous. In some areas, this species has become a nuisance after its introduction. It is a weed outside of gardens and landscaped areas. Clematis flammula var. maritima is a hardier variety that is adapted to sand dunes. It is currently being studied as an agent of soil stabilization on eroded sandy beaches.
plant
flower
Index
Cotinus coggygria  Wig Tree, Smoke Tree
Family Anacardiaceae
Genus Cotinus    
Species coggygria   
Properties shrub
Cotinus coggygria, syn. Rhus cotinus, the European smoketree, Eurasian smoketree, smoke tree, smoke bush, or dyer's sumach is a species of flowering plant in the family Anacardiaceae, native to a large area from southern Europe, east across central Asia and the Himalayas to northern China. It is a multiple-branching shrub growing to 5–7 m (16–23 ft) tall with an open, spreading, irregular habit, only rarely forming a small tree. The leaves are 3-8 cm long rounded ovals, green with a waxy glaucous sheen. The autumn colour can be strikingly varied, from peach and yellow to scarlet. The flowers are numerous, produced in large inflorescences 15–30 cm (5.9–11.8 in) long; each flower 5-10 mm diameter, with five pale yellow petals. Most of the flowers in each inflorescence abort, elongating into yellowish-pink to pinkish-purple feathery plumes (when viewed en masse these have a wispy 'smoke-like' appearance, hence the common name) which surround the small (2-3 mm) drupaceous fruit that do develop.
autumn foliage
flowers
Index
Crataegus azarolus  Azarole
Family Rosaceae
Genus Crataegus  [kra-TE-gus]  Gr. krataigos, believed to be derived from kratos, strength, alluding to the hardness of the wood
Species azarolus   
Properties tree
Crataegus azarolus is a species of hawthorn known by the common names azarole, azerole, and Mediterranean medlar. It is native to the Mediterranean Basin and is a common plant there, growing on sites comparable to those the European common hawthorn grows on. In the Arabic-speaking countries it is the commonest of the hawthorn species; in the Arabic language the term "common hawthorn" means the azarole hawthorn. When growing in the wild the azerole bears plentiful crops of haw fruits, which are similar to the haws of the European common hawthorn, but plumper. C. azarolus is often divided into subspecies or varieties, for example Christensen in his monograph uses four varieties: * C. azarolus var. azarolus has orange fruit. * C. azarolus var. aronia L., has yellowish fruit often with some red tinges * C. azarolus var. chlorocarpa (Moris) K.I.Chr. has yellowish fruit * C. azarolus var. pontica (K.Koch) K.I.Chr. has yellowish or orange fruit C. azarolus has been used historically for a number of medicinal purposes.
flowers
ripe fruit
green fruit
Index
Cupressus sempervirens  Italian Cypress
Family Cupressaceae
Genus Cupressus  [ku-PRES-sus]  classical name, said to be from Gr. kuo, to produce, parisos, equal, alluding to the symmetrical form of the Italian Cypress
Species sempervirens  [sem-per-VEER-enz]  always green
Properties tree
Cupressus sempervirens, the Mediterranean cypress (also known as Italian cypress, Tuscan cypress, graveyard cypress, or pencil pine), is a species of cypress native to the eastern Mediterranean region, in northeast Libya, southern Albania, southern coastal Croatia (Dalmatia), southern Greece, southern Turkey, Cyprus, northern Egypt, western Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Malta, Italy, western Jordan, and also a disjunct population in Iran. C. sempervirens is a medium-sized coniferous evergreen tree to 35 m (115 ft) tall, with a conic crown with level branches and variably loosely hanging branchlets. It is very long-lived, with some trees reported to be over 1,000 years old. The foliage grows in dense sprays, dark green in colour. The leaves are scale-like, 2–5 mm long, and produced on rounded (not flattened) shoots. The seed cones are ovoid or oblong, 25–40 mm long, with 10-14 scales, green at first, maturing brown about 20–24 months after pollination. The male cones are 3–5 mm long, and release pollen in late winter. It is moderately susceptible to cypress canker, caused by the fungus Seiridium cardinale, and can suffer extensive dieback where this disease is common. The species name sempervirens comes from the Latin for 'evergreen'.
fruit
tree
tree
distribution
Index
Cytisus scoparius  Common Broom
Family Fabaceae
Genus Cytisus    
Species scoparius   
Properties shrub
Cytisus scoparius, the common broom or Scotch broom, syn. Sarothamnus scoparius, is a perennial leguminous shrub native to western and central Europe. In Britain and Ireland, the standard name is broom, but this name is also used for other members of the Genisteae tribe, such as French broom or Spanish broom, and the term common broom is sometimes used for clarification. In other English-speaking countries, the most prevalent common name is Scotch broom (or Scot's broom); English broom is also occasionally used.
Index
Datura stramonium  Thorn apple
Family Solanaceae
Genus Datura    
Species stramonium   
Properties shrub
Datura stramonium, known by the common names Jimson weed or Devil's snare, is a plant in the nightshade family. It is believed to have originated in Mexico, but has now become naturalized in many other regions. Other common names for D. stramonium include thornapple and moon flower, and it has the Spanish name toloache. Other names for the plant include hell's bells,devil’s trumpet, devil’s weed, tolguacha, Jamestown weed, stinkweed, locoweed, pricklyburr, and devil’s cucumber. Datura has been used in traditional medicine to relieve asthma symptoms and as an analgesic during surgery or bonesetting. It is also a powerful hallucinogen and deliriant, which is used spiritually for the intense visions it produces. However, the tropane alkaloids responsible for both the medicinal and hallucinogenic properties are fatally toxic in only slightly higher amounts than the medicinal dosage, and careless use often results in hospitalizations and deaths.
plant
leaves and flowers
seed
Index
Delonix regia  Flamboyant
Family Caesalpinioideae
Genus Delonix    from Gr delos, evident or conspicuous and onux a claw referring to the long-clawed petals
Species regia  [RE-je-a]  royal
Properties tree
Delonix regia is a species of flowering plant in the bean family Fabaceae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae. It is noted for its fern-like leaves and flamboyant display of flowers. In many tropical parts of the world it is grown as an ornamental tree and in English it is given the name royal poinciana or flamboyant. It is also one of several trees known as Flame tree. This species was previously placed in the genus Poinciana, named for Phillippe de Longvilliers de Poincy, the 17th century governor of Saint Christophe (Saint Kitts). It is a non nodulating legume.
tree
flower and foliage
Index
Diospyros kaki  Persimmon
Family Ebenaceae
Genus Diospyros    Gr dios divine and pyros wheat or grain
Species kaki   Native Japanes name
Properties tree
Diospyros kaki is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Diospyros. Although its first published botanical description was not until 1780, the kaki is among the oldest plants in cultivation, known for its use in China for more than 2000 years. In some rural Chinese communities, the kaki fruit is seen as having a great mystical power that can be harnessed to solve headaches, back pains and foot ache. The persimmon (kaki) is a sweet, slightly tangy fruit with a soft to occasionally fibrous texture. This species, native to China, is deciduous, with broad, stiff leaves. Cultivation extended first to other parts of East Asia and was later introduced to California and southern Europe in the 19th century, to Brazil in the 1890s, and numerous cultivars have been selected. A variety is Diospyros kaki var. sylvestris Makino.When ripe, this fruit comprises thick pulpy jelly encased in a waxy thin-skinned shell. In many cultivars, known as the astringent varieties, the fruit has a high proanthocyanidin-type tannin content which makes the immature fruit astringent and bitter. The tannin levels are reduced as the fruit matures. It is not edible in its crisp, firm state; it tastes best when allowed to rest and soften after harvest. It has a soft jelly-like consistency and is best eaten with a spoon. The Japanese 'Hachiya' is a widely grown astringent cultivar. Other cultivars, such as Fuyu, do not contain tannins when firm. They can be eaten like an apple or can be allowed to go to any stage of ripeness, including to the jelly-like stage. These non-astringent varieties are considered to have a less complex flavor. "Sharon Fruit" (named originally after Sharon plain in Israel) is the trade name for non-astringent D. kaki fruit.
foliage
fruit
Index
Diospyros lotus  Date Plum
Family Ebenaceae
Genus Diospyros    Gr dios divine and pyros wheat or grain
Species lotus   
Properties tree
Diospyros lotus, with common names date-plum, Caucasian persimmon, or lilac persimmon, is a widely cultivated species of the genus Diospyros, native to subtropical southwest Asia and southeast Europe. Its English name derives from the small fruit, which have a taste reminiscent of both plums and dates. It is among the oldest plants in cultivation.
tree
fruit
seeds
bark
Index
Dracaena draco  Canarian Dragon Tree
Family Asparagaceae
Genus Dracaena    
Species draco   
Properties tree
Not to be confused with the related Dracaena cinnabari, the dragon blood tree native to Socotra (an island near Yemen). Dracaena draco, the Canary Islands dragon tree or drago, is a subtropical tree-like plant in the genus Dracaena, native to the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Madeira, and locally in western Morocco, and introduced to the Azores. It is the natural symbol of the island of Tenerife, together with the blue chaffinch.
foliage
fruit
tree
Index
Elaeagnus angustifolia  Oleaster
Family Elaeagnaceae
Genus Elaeagnus    comes from the Greek words elaia meaning the olive tree and agnos meaning chaste-tree.(3)
Species angustifolia   L. narrow-leaved
Properties shrub
Elaeagnus angustifolia, commonly called Russian olive, silver berry, oleaster, Persian olive, or wild olive, or commonly referred to as senjid or sinjid in Afghanistan and senjed in Iran, is a species of Elaeagnus, native to western and central Asia, Afghanistan, from southern Russia and Kazakhstan to Turkey and Iran. It is now also widely established in North America as an introduced species.
foliage
tree
berries
flower
Index
Ephedra fragilis  Joint Pine
Family Ephedra_(genus)
Genus Ephedra    
Species fragilis  [FRAJ-il-is]  brittle
Properties shrub
Ephedra fragilis, commonly named the joint pine, is a species of Ephedra that is native to eastern Mediterranean region of southern Europe and Northern Africa, and from Madeira and the Canary Islands in the Atlantic. Its habitats are rocky hills and stone walls, where it grows to 6 feet (1.8 m) tall.
foliage
flowers
tree
Index
Erica arborea  Tree Heather
Family Ericaceae
Genus Erica    
Species arborea   
Properties shrub
Erica arborea (tree heath) is a species of flowering plant (angiosperms) in the heather family, Ericaceae. There are disjunct populations in Africa including the Ethiopian Highlands, the mountains of Ruwenzori and the Cameroon Mountains. In Africa it is normally referred to as giant heather. It is native to the maquis shrublands surrounding the Mediterranean Basin and west to Portugal and the Canary and Madeira Islands. Naturalised populations occur in south-eastern Australia.
Index
Eriobotrya japonica  Loquat
Family Rosaceae
Genus Eriobotrya    
Species japonica  [jap-ON-ik-a]  of Japan
Properties tree
The loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a species of flowering plant in the family Rosaceae, an ancient fruit grown in Japan for the past 1,000 years which is probably native to the cooler hill regions of China to south-central China. It is a large evergreen shrub or tree, grown commercially for its yellow fruit, and also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Eriobotrya japonica was formerly thought to be closely related to the genus Mespilus, and is still sometimes known as the Japanese medlar. It is also known as Japanese plum and Chinese plum, also known as pipa in China.
fruit
flower
tree
leaf
Index
Erythrina crista-galli  Coral Tree
Family Fabaceae
Genus Erythrina    
Species crista-galli   
Properties tree
Erythrina crista-galli, often known as the cockspur coral tree, is a flowering tree in the family Fabaceae, native to Argentina, Uruguay, southern Brazil and Paraguay. It is widely planted as a street or garden tree in other countries, notably in California. It is known by several common names within South America: ceibo, seíbo (Spanish), corticeira (Portuguese) and the more ambiguous bucaré, to name a few. Its specific epithet crista-galli means "cock's comb" in Latin. The ceibo is the national tree of Argentina, and its flower the national flower of Argentina and Uruguay. This species characteristically grows wild in gallery forest ecosystems along watercourses, as well as in swamps and wetlands. In urban settings, it is often planted in parks for its bright red flowers.
foliage and flowers
tree
bark
Index
Eucalyptus robusta  Swamp Mahogony
Family Myrtaceae
Genus Eucalyptus  [u-kal-IP-tus]  Gr. eu, good or well and calypha, covered in allusion to the calyx which covers the flower like a lid
Species robusta   
Properties tree
Eucalyptus robusta, commonly known as swamp mahogany or swamp messmate, is a tree native to eastern Australia. Growing in swampy or waterlogged soils, it is up to 30 m (100 ft) high with thick spongy reddish brown bark and dark green broad leaves, which help form a dense canopy. The white to cream flowers appear in autumn and winter. The leaves are commonly eaten by insects, and are a food item for the koala. It is an important winter-flowering species in eastern Australia, and has been planted extensively in many countries around the world. Its timber is used for firewood and in general construction.
Index
Eucalyptus globulus  Tasmanian Blue Gum
Family Myrtaceae
Genus Eucalyptus  [u-kal-IP-tus]  Gr. eu, good or well and calypha, covered in allusion to the calyx which covers the flower like a lid
Species globulus   
Properties tree
Eucalyptus globulus, the Tasmanian bluegum, southern blue-gum or blue gum, is an evergreen tree, one of the most widely cultivated trees native to Australia. They typically grow from 30–55 m (98–180 ft) tall. The tallest currently known specimen in Tasmania is 90.7 m (298 ft) tall. There are historical claims of even taller trees, the tallest being 101 m (331 ft). The natural distribution of the species includes Tasmania and southern Victoria (particularly the Otway Ranges and southern Gippsland). There are also isolated occurrences on King Island and Flinders Island in Bass Strait and on the summit of the You Yangs near Geelong. There are naturalised non-native occurrences in Spain and Portugal, and other parts of southern Europe incl. Cyprus, southern Africa, New Zealand, western United States (California), Hawaii, Macaronesia, and the Caucasus (Western Georgia). The d'Entrecasteaux expedition made immediate use of the species when they discovered it, the timber being used to improve their oared boats. The Tasmanian blue gum was proclaimed as the floral emblem of Tasmania on 27 November 1962. The species name is from the Latin globulus, a little button, referring to the shape of the operculum.
Index
Euphorbia canariensis  Canary Island Spurge
Family Euphorbiinae
Genus Euphorbia  [u-FOR-be-a]  after Euphorbus, physician to Juba, King of Mauritania
Species canariensis   from the Canary Islands
Properties shrub, succulent
Euphorbia canariensis, commonly known as the Canary Island spurge, Hercules club or in Spanish cardón, is a succulent member of the genus Euphorbia and family Euphorbiaceae endemic to the Canary Islands. It is the plant symbol of the island of Gran Canaria.
habitat
spines
tree
flowers
Index
Euphorbia dendroides  Tree Spurge
Family Euphorbiaceae
Genus Euphorbia  [u-FOR-be-a]  after Euphorbus, physician to Juba, King of Mauritania
Species dendroides   
Properties shrub
Euphorbia dendroides, also known as Tree Spurge, is a small tree of the Euphorbiaceae family that grows in semi-arid and mediterranean climates.
flowers
shrub
Index
Euphorbia pulcherrima  Poinsettia
Family Euphorbiaceae
Genus Euphorbia  [u-FOR-be-a]  after Euphorbus, physician to Juba, King of Mauritania
Species pulcherrima  [pul-KER-rim-a]  most beautiful
Properties tree
The poinsettia (/pɔɪnˈsɛtiə/ or /pɔɪnˈsɛtə/) (Euphorbia pulcherrima) is a commercially important plant species of the diverse spurge family. The species is indigenous to Mexico. It is particularly well known for its red and green foliage and is widely used in Christmas floral displays. It derives its common English name from Joel Roberts Poinsett, the first United States Minister to Mexico, who introduced the plant to the US in 1825.
plant
leaves
Index
Fraxinus ornus  Manna Ash, Flowering Ash
Family Oleaceae
Genus Fraxinus  [FRAKS-in-us]  L. name for an Ash tree, probably from Gr. phrasso, to fence, the wood being useful for fence-making
Species ornus  [OR-nus]  old L. name for Ash
Properties tree
Fraxinus ornus (manna ash or South European flowering ash) is a species of Fraxinus native to southern Europe and southwestern Asia, from Spain and Italy north to Austria, Poland and the Czech Republic, and east through the Balkans, Turkey, and western Syria to Lebanon and Armenia.
flowers
seeds
tree
Index
Ficus benghalensis  Banyan Tree
Family Moraceae
Genus Ficus  [FI-kus]  the L. name for a Fig tree and one common in many European languages. Believed to be derived from the Hebrew name fag
Species benghalensis   
Properties tree
Ficus benghalensis, with the common name Indian banyan, is a tree which is native to the Indian Subcontinent. Specimens in India are among the largest trees in the world by canopy coverage.
Index
Ficus benjamina  Weeping Fig
Family Moraceae
Genus Ficus  [FI-kus]  the L. name for a Fig tree and one common in many European languages. Believed to be derived from the Hebrew name fag
Species benjamina   
Properties tree
Ficus benjamina, commonly known as weeping fig, benjamin fig or Ficus tree, and often sold in stores as just ficus, is a species of flowering plant in the family Moraceae, native to Asia and Australia. It is the official tree of Bangkok. The species is also naturalized in the West Indies and in the States of Florida and Arizona in the United States. Ficus benjamina is a tree reaching 30 metres (98 ft) tall in natural conditions, with gracefully drooping branchlets and glossy leaves 6–13 cm (2–5 in), oval with an acuminate tip. In its native range, its small fruit are favored by some birds, such as the superb fruit dove, wompoo fruit dove, pink-spotted fruit dove, ornate fruit dove, orange-bellied fruit dove, Torresian imperial pigeon, purple-tailed imperial pigeon (Frith et al. 1976).
tree
fruit
Index
Ficus carica  Common fig
Family Moraceae
Genus Ficus  [FI-kus]  the L. name for a Fig tree and one common in many European languages. Believed to be derived from the Hebrew name fag
Species carica  [KAR-ik-a]  of Caria, Asia Minor
Properties tree
Ficus carica is an Asian species of flowering plants in the mulberry family, known as the common fig (or just the fig). It is the source of the fruit also called the fig, and as such is an important crop in those areas where it is grown commercially. Native to the Middle East and western Asia, it has been sought out and cultivated since ancient times, and is now widely grown throughout the world, both for its fruit and as an ornamental plant. The species has become naturalized in scattered locations in Asia and North America.
foliage
bark
green fruit
ripe fruit
Index
Ficus elastica  Indian Rubber Tree
Family Moraceae
Genus Ficus  [FI-kus]  the L. name for a Fig tree and one common in many European languages. Believed to be derived from the Hebrew name fag
Species elastica   
Properties tree
Ficus elastica, the rubber fig, rubber bush, rubber tree, rubber plant, or Indian rubber bush, is a species of plant in the fig genus, native to northeast India, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, China (Yunnan), Malaysia, and Indonesia. It has become naturalized in Sri Lanka, the West Indies, and the US State of Florida.
leaves
trunk
tree
Index
Ficus sycamorus  Sycamore Fig
Family Moraceae
Genus Ficus  [FI-kus]  the L. name for a Fig tree and one common in many European languages. Believed to be derived from the Hebrew name fag
Species sycamorus   
Properties tree
Ficus sycomorus (Bambara: Sutoro), called the sycamore fig or the fig-mulberry (because the leaves resemble those of the mulberry), sycamore, or sycomore, is a fig species that has been cultivated since ancient times. The term sycamore spelled with an A has been used for a variety of plants and is widely used in England to refer to the Great Maple, Acer pseudoplatanus. For clarity, the Ficus sycomorus species of fig is usually exclusively referred to as "sycomore", with an O rather than an A as the second vowel.
Index
Gardenia jasminoides  Gardinia
Family Rubiaceae
Genus Gardenia    
Species jasminoides   
Properties shrub
Gardenia jasminoides, (gardenia, cape jasmine, cape jessamine, danh-danh, or jasmin) is an evergreen flowering plant of the family Rubiaceae. It originated in Asia and is most commonly found growing wild in Vietnam, Southern China, Taiwan, Japan, Myanmar, and India. With its shiny green leaves and heavily fragrant white summer flowers, it is widely used in gardens in warm temperate and subtropical climates, and as a houseplant in temperate regions. It has been in cultivation in China for at least a thousand years, and was introduced to English gardens in the mid 18th century. Many varieties have been bred for horticulture, with low growing, and large-and long-flowering forms.
flower
shrub
Index
Gleditsia triacanthos  Honey Locust
Family Fabaceae
Genus Gleditsia  [gled-its-ia]  named after Johann Gottlieb Gleditsch (1714-1786), director of the Botanical Garden, Berlin.
Species triacanthos   from Gr. tri, three and Gr. acantha, thorn
Properties tree
The honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) also known as the thorny locust, is a deciduous tree in the Fabaceae family, native to central North America where it is mostly found in the moist soil of river valleys ranging from southeastern South Dakota to New Orleans and central Texas, and as far east as eastern Massachusetts. The species has become a significant invasive weed in other regions of the world.
seed pod
cv 'Sunburst'
bark and thorns
Index
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis  Hibiscus
Family Malvaceae
Genus Hibiscus    
Species rosa-sinensis   
Properties shrub
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, known colloquially as Chinese hibiscus, China rose, Hawaiian hibiscus, and shoeblackplant, is a species of tropical hibiscus, a flowering plant in the Hibisceae tribe of the family Malvaceae, native to East Asia.
flower
shrub
Index
Hibiscus syriacus  Rose Mallow
Family Malvaceae
Genus Hibiscus    
Species syriacus   
Properties shrub
Hibiscus syriacus is a species of flowering plant in the family Malvaceae, native to much of Asia (though not, as Linnaeus thought, Syria, in spite of the name he gave it). Common names include rose of Sharon (especially in North America), Syrian ketmia or rose mallow (United Kingdom) and St Joseph's rod (Italy).
flower
flower
Index
Hyphaene thebaica  Doum Palm
Family Arecaceae
Genus Hyphaene    
Species thebaica   
Properties tree
Hyphaene thebaica, with common names doum palm (Ar: دوم) and gingerbread tree (also doom palm), is a type of palm tree with edible oval fruit. It is a native to the Arabian Peninsula and also to the northern half of Africa where it is widely distributed and tends to grow in places where groundwater is present. It has been shown that dietary supplementation with doum palm extract has hypotensive and hypolipidemic effects.
tree
Index
Jacaranda mimosifolia  Jacaranda
Family Bignoniaceae
Genus Jacaranda    
Species mimosifolia   
Properties tree
Jacaranda mimosifolia is a sub-tropical tree native to south-central South America that has been widely planted elsewhere because of its beautiful and long-lasting blue flowers. It is also known as jacaranda, blue jacaranda, black poui, or as the fern tree. Older sources call it Jacaranda acutifolia, but it is nowadays more usually classified as Jacaranda mimosifolia. In scientific usage, the name "Jacaranda" refers to the genus Jacaranda, which has many other members, but in horticultural and everyday usage, it nearly always means the blue jacaranda.
bark
flowers
tree
leaf
Index
Jasminum fruticans  
Family Oleaceae
Genus Jasminum  [jas-MIN-um]  said to be derived from ysmyn, the Arabic name
Species fruticans   
Properties shrub
Index
Jasminum grandiflorum  Jasmine
Family Oleaceae
Genus Jasminum  [jas-MIN-um]  said to be derived from ysmyn, the Arabic name
Species grandiflorum   
Properties climber
Jasminum grandiflorum, also known variously as the Spanish jasmine, Royal jasmine, Catalonian jasmine, among others (chameli in Urdu) is a species of jasmine native to South Asia, the Arabian peninsula (Oman, Saudi Arabia), Northeast Africa (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan), the African Great Lakes (Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda), and the Yunnan and Sichuan regions of China. The species is widely cultivated and is reportedly naturalized in République de Guinée, the Maldive Islands, Mauritius, Réunion, Java, the Cook Islands, Chiapas, Central America, and much of the West Indies.
plant
flower
Index
Jasminum odoratissimum  
Family Oleaceae
Genus Jasminum  [jas-MIN-um]  said to be derived from ysmyn, the Arabic name
Species odoratissimum   
Properties shrub
Index
Jasminum officinale  Jasmine
Family Oleaceae
Genus Jasminum  [jas-MIN-um]  said to be derived from ysmyn, the Arabic name
Species officinale   
Properties climber
Jasminum officinale, known as the common jasmine or simply jasmine, is a species of flowering plant in the olive family Oleaceae. It is native to the Caucasus, northern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Himalayas, Tajikistan, India, Nepal and western China (Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang (Tibet), Yunnan). The species is also widely cultivated in many places, and is reportedly naturalized in France, Italy, Portugal, Romania, the former Yugoslavia, Algeria, Florida and the West Indies. It is also known as summer jasmine, poet's jasmine, white jasmine, true jasmine or jessamine, and is particularly valued by gardeners throughout the temperate world for the intense fragrance of its flowers in summer. It is also the National flower of Pakistan.
foliage
flowers
Index
Juglans regia  Persian Walnut
Family Juglandaceae
Genus Juglans  [JUG-lans]  old L. name for the walnut tree, possibly from Jovis glans, the nut of Jupiter in mythology
Species regia  [RE-je-a]  royal
Properties tree
Juglans regia, Persian walnut, English walnut, or especially in Great Britain, common walnut, is an Old World walnut tree species native to the region stretching from the Balkans eastward to the Himalayas and southwest China. The largest forests are in Kyrgyzstan, where trees occur in extensive, nearly pure walnut forests at 1,000–2,000 m altitude—notably at Arslanbob in Jalal-Abad Province. It is widely cultivated across Europe.
buds
walnuts
young fruit
tree
Index
Juniperus oxycedrus  Prickly Juniper
Family Cupressaceae
Genus Juniperus  [ju-NIP-er-us]  old L. name
Species oxycedrus   
Properties shrub
Juniperus oxycedrus (prickly juniper, prickly cedar, cade juniper and cade (from the French genévrier cade), sharp cedar) is a species of juniper, native across the Mediterranean region from Morocco and Portugal, north to southern France, east to westernmost Iran, and south to Lebanon and Israel, growing on a variety of rocky sites from sea level up to 1600 m altitude. The specific epithet oxycedrus means "sharp cedar" and this species may have been the original cedar or cedrus of the ancient Greeks.
Index
Juniperus phoenicea  Phoenician Juniper
Family Cupressaceae
Genus Juniperus  [ju-NIP-er-us]  old L. name
Species phoenicea   
Properties shrub
Juniperus phoenicea, the Phoenicean juniper or Arâr, is a juniper found throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal east to Italy, Turkey and Egypt, south on the mountains of Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and in western Saudi Arabia near the Red Sea, and also on Madeira and the Canary Islands. It mostly grows at low altitudes close to the coast, but reaches 2,400 metres (7,900 ft) altitude in the south of its range in the Atlas Mountains. It is the vegetable symbol of the island of El Hierro.
Index
Lagerstroemia indica  Cape Myrtle
Family Lythraceae
Genus Lagerstroemia    
Species indica   of India but has been applied to plants from East Indies as well as into China
Properties shrub
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle, crepe myrtle, crepeflower) is a species in the genus Lagerstroemia in the family Lythraceae. From China, Korea, Japan and Indian Subcontinent Lagerstroemia indica is an often multi-stemmed, deciduous tree with a wide spreading, flat topped, rounded, or even spike shaped open habit. Planted in full sun or under canopy, the tree is a popular nesting shrub for songbirds and wrens. The bark is a prominent feature being smooth, pinkish-gray and mottled, shedding each year. Leaves also shed each winter, after spectacular color display, and bare branches re-leaf early in the spring; leaves are small, smooth-edged, circular or oval-shaped, and dark green changing to yellow and orange and red in autumn. Flowers, on different trees, are white, pink, mauve, purple or carmine with crimped petals, in panicles up to 9 centimetres (3 1⁄2 in). Lagerstroemia indica is frost tolerant, prefers full sun and will grow to 6 metres (20 ft) with a spread of 6 metres (20 ft). Many hybrid cultivars have been developed between L. indica and L. faueri
flowers
Index
Lantana camara  Lantana
Family Verbenaceae
Genus Lantana    
Species camara   
Properties shrub
Lantana camara, also known as big-sage (Malaysia), wild-sage, red-sage, white-sage (Caribbean) and tickberry (South Africa), is a species of flowering plant within the verbena family, Verbenaceae, that is native to the American tropics. Lantana camara, often planted to embellish gardens, has spread from its native Central and South America to around 50 different countries, where it has become an invasive species. It spread from the Americas into the rest of the world when it was brought back to Europe by Dutch explorers and cultivated widely, soon spreading into Asia and Oceania, where it established itself as a notorious weed. Lantana camara will often outcompete other more desirable species, leading to a reduction in biodiversity. It can also cause problems if it invades agricultural areas as a result of its toxicity to livestock as well as its ability to form dense thickets which if left unchecked can greatly reduce the productivity of farm land. The name Lantana derives from the Latin name of the wayfaring tree Viburnum lantana, the flowers of which closely resemble Lantana.
flowers
Index
Laurus nobilis  Bay tree
Family Lauraceae
Genus Laurus  [LAW-rus]   Old L. name for a Bay tree, the true 'Laurel' of the ancients, perhaps derived from Celtic laur, green
Species nobilis  [NO-bil-is]  noble
Properties tree
Laurus nobilis is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glossy leaves, native to the Mediterranean region. It is one of the plants used for bay leaf seasoning in cooking. It is known as bay laurel, sweet bay, bay tree (esp. United Kingdom), true laurel, Grecian laurel, laurel tree or simply laurel. Laurus nobilis figures prominently in classical Greek, Roman, and Biblical culture. Worldwide, many other kinds of plants in diverse families are also called "bay" or "laurel", generally due to similarity of foliage or aroma to Laurus nobilis, and the full name is used for the California bay laurel (Umbellularia), also in the family Lauraceae.
flowers
bark
foliage
Index
Ligustrum lucidum  Glossy Privet, Chinese Privet
Family Oleeae
Genus Ligustrum  [li-GUS-trum]  L. name for privet, possibly from L. ligo to bind, the twigs having been used for tying
Species lucidum   bright or shining
Properties shrub
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet, Chinese privet glossy privet, tree privet or wax-leaf privet) is a species of privet (Ligustrum genus), a flowering plant in the olive family, Oleaceae, native to the southern half of China and naturalized in many places: Spain, Italy, Algeria, Canary Islands, New Zealand, Lesotho, South Africa, Japan, Korea, Australia, Norfolk Island, Chiapas, Central America, Argentina, and the southern United States (California, Arizona, Maryland, and the southeast from Texas to North Carolina). The name "Chinese privet" is more frequently used for Ligustrum sinense. The Latin lucidum means bright or shiny, and refers to the glossy leaves.
Index
Livistona australis  Cabbage-tree palm
Family Arecaceae
Genus Livistona    
Species australis   southern
Properties tree
The cabbage-tree palm, Livistona australis, is in the Arecaceae family. It is a tall, slender palm growing up to about 25 m in height and 0.35 m diameter. It is crowned with dark, glossy green leaves on petioles 2 m long. It has leaves plaited like a fan; the cabbage of these is small but sweet. In summer it bears flower spikes with sprigs of cream-white flowers. In winter, the trees accumulate dead fronds or leaves, which usually need to be removed by a arborist. Seeking protection from the sun, early European settlers in Australia used fibre from the native palm to create the cabbage tree hat, a distinctive form of headwear during the colonial era.
trees
leaves
Index
Lonicera etrusca  Honeysuckle
Family Caprifoliaceae
Genus Lonicera    
Species etrusca   
Properties climber
Lonicera etrusca is a species of honeysuckle known by the common name Etruscan honeysuckle. It is native to Europe and it is known elsewhere, including the Pacific Northwest of North America, as an introduced species where it has escaped cultivation. It is kept in gardens as an ornamental plant. This is a deciduous perennial climber which can reach lengths of 6 meters. It is lined with oval leaves several centimeters long and bears dense spikes of flowers with pairs of fused leaves at the bases. Each flower has an elongated tubular corolla up to 5 centimeters long divided partway into two lips. The flower is light yellow to pale reddish-pink. The stamens and style protrude from the flower's mouth. The fruit is a bright red rounded berry. Notable cultivars include 'Donald Waterer' and 'Superba', which has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
flowers
berries
shrub
Index
Magnolia grandiflora  Evergreen Magnolia
Family Magnoliaceae
Genus Magnolia  [mag-NO-li-a]  >named by Linneaus in commemoration of Piere Magnol, a professor of botant and medicine at Montpellier in 16th C
Species grandiflora   
Properties tree
Magnolia grandiflora, commonly known as the southern magnolia or bull bay, is a tree of the family Magnoliaceae native to the southeastern United States, from coastal North Carolina to central Florida, and west to East Texas and Oklahoma. Reaching 27.5 m (90 ft) in height, it is a large, striking evergreen tree with large, dark green leaves up to 20 cm (7.9 in) long and 12 cm (4.7 in) wide, and large, white, fragrant flowers up to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. Although endemic to the lowland subtropical forests on the Gulf and south Atlantic coastal plain, magnolia grandiflora is widely cultivated in warmer areas around the world. The timber is hard and heavy, and has been used commercially to make furniture, pallets, and veneer.
small tree
leaves
flower
Index
Melia azedarach  Indian Bead Tree, Persian Lilac
Family Meliaceae
Genus Melia    
Species azedarach   
Properties tree
Melia azedarach, commonly known by many names, including chinaberry tree, Pride of India, bead-tree, Cape lilac, syringa berrytree, Persian lilac, and Indian lilac, is a species of deciduous tree in the mahogany family, Meliaceae, that is native to Indomalaya and Australasia.
tree
foliage
flowers
fruit
Index
Morus alba  White Mulberry
Family Moraceae
Genus Morus  [MOR-us]  ancient L. name for mulberry
Species alba   white
Properties tree
Morus alba, known as white mulberry, is a short-lived, fast-growing, small to medium-sized mulberry tree, which grows to 10–20 m tall. The species is native to northern China, and is widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (United States, Mexico, Australia, Kyrgyzstan, Argentina, etc.). It is known as shahatut in Hindi शहतूत and Urdu شہتوت ,Tuta in Sanskrit, Tuti in Marathi, Dut in Turkish and Toot in Persian in Azerbaijani and in Armenian. The white mulberry is widely cultivated to feed the silkworms employed in the commercial production of silk. It is also notable for the rapid release of its pollen, which is launched at over half the speed of sound.
tree
foliage and seeds
Index
Morus nigra  Black Mulberry
Family Moraceae
Genus Morus  [MOR-us]  ancient L. name for mulberry
Species nigra  [NEE-gra]  black
Properties tree
Morus nigra, called black mulberry or blackberry (not to be confused with the blackberries which are various species of Rubus), is a species of flowering plant in the family Moraceae, native to southwestern Asia, where it has been cultivated for so long that its precise natural range is unknown. It is known for its large number of chromosomes, as it has 154 pairs (308 individuals). Other mulberry species are sometimes confused with black mulberry, particularly black-fruited individuals of the white mulberry, but black mulberry can be distinguished by the uniformly hairy lower leaf surface.
tree
flowers
fruit
Index
Myrtus communis  Myrtle
Family Myrtaceae
Genus Myrtus    L. name for Murtle
Species communis  [kom-MU-nis]  common
Properties shrub
Myrtus communis, the common myrtle, is an evergreen shrub native to southern Europe, north Africa, western Asia, Macaronesia, and the Indian Subcontinent, and also cultivated.
flowers
berry
foliage
Index
Nerium oleander  Oleander
Family Apocynoideae
Genus Nerium    
Species oleander   
Properties shrub
Nerium oleander /ˈnɪəriəm ˈoʊliː.ændər/ is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the dogbane family Apocynaceae, toxic in all its parts. It is the only species currently classified in the genus Nerium. It is most commonly known as oleander, from its superficial resemblance to the unrelated olive Olea. It is so widely cultivated that no precise region of origin has been identified, though southwest Asia has been suggested. The ancient city of Volubilis in Morocco may have taken its name from the Berber name oualilt for the flower. Oleander is one of the most poisonous commonly grown garden plants.
flowers and foliage
Index
Nicotiana glauca  Tree Tobacco
Family Solanaceae
Genus Nicotiana    
Species glauca   
Properties shrub
Nicotiana glauca is a species of wild tobacco known by the common name tree tobacco. Its leaves are attached to the stalk by petioles (many other Nicotiana species have sessile leaves), and its leaves and stems are neither pubescent nor sticky like Nicotiana tabacum. It resembles Cestrum parqui but differs in the form of leaves and fusion of the outer floral parts. It grows to heights of more than two meters. Tree tobacco is native to South America but it is now widespread as an introduced species on other continents. It is a common roadside weed in the southwestern United States, and an invasive plant species in California native plant habitats. The plant is used for a variety of medicinal purposes and smoked by Native American groups. The Cahuilla Indians used leaves interchangeably with other tobacco species in hunting rituals and as a poultice to treat swellings, bruises, cuts, wounds, boils, sores, inflamed throat, and swollen glands. Contains the toxic alkaloid anabasine. Ingestion of the leaves can be fatal. It is being investigated for use as a biofuel.
flowers
leaf
shrub
Index
Olea europaea  Olive Tree
Family Oleaceae
Genus Olea    
Species europaea   
Properties tree
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "european olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands, Mauritius and Réunion. The species is cultivated in many places and considered naturalized in all the countries of the Mediterranean coast, as well as in Argentina, Saudi Arabia, Java, Norfolk Island, California and Bermuda. Olea europeana sylvestris is a subspecies that corresponds to a smaller tree bearing noticeably smaller fruits. The olive's fruit, also called the olive, is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil; it is one of the three core ingredients in Mediterranean cuisine. The tree and its fruit give their name to the plant family, which also includes species such as lilacs, jasmine, Forsythia and the true ash trees (Fraxinus). The word derives from Latin ŏlīva ("olive fruit", "olive tree"; "olive oil" is ŏlĕum) a borrowing from the Greek ἐλαία (elaía, "olive fruit", "olive tree") and ἔλαιον (élaion, "olive oil") in the archaic form *ἐλαίϝα. The oldest attested forms of the Greek words are the Mycenaean 𐀁𐀨𐀷, e-ra-wa, and 𐀁𐀨𐀺, e-ra-wo or 𐀁𐁉𐀺, e-rai-wo, written in the Linear B syllabic script. The word "oil" in multiple languages ultimately derives from the name of this tree and its fruit.
old tree
olive orchard
flowers
bark
distribution
fruit
Index
Opuntia ficus-indica  Prickly Pear
Family Cactaceae
Genus Opuntia    
Species ficus-indica   
Properties shrub
Opuntia ficus-indica is a species of cactus that has long been a domesticated crop plant important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world. It is thought probably to have originated in Mexico. Some of the common English names for the plant and its fruit are Indian fig opuntia, Barbary fig, cactus pear, spineless cactus, and prickly pear, although this last name has also been applied to other less common Opuntia species. In Mexican Spanish, the plant is called nopal, while the fruit is called tuna, which are names also used in American English, especially as culinary terms.
fruit
flowers and leaves
plant
flower
Index
Passiflora caerulea  Passion Flower
Family Passifloraceae
Genus Passiflora    
Species caerulea   
Properties climber
Passiflora caerulea, the blue passionflower, bluecrown passionflower or common passion flower, is a species of flowering plant native to South America (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil). It is a vigorous, deciduous or semi-evergreen tendril vine growing to 10 m (33 ft) or more, with palmate leaves and fragrant, blue-white flowers with a prominent fringe of coronal filaments in bands of blue, white, and brown. The ovoid orange fruit, growing to 6 cm (2 in), is edible but bland.
flower and fruit
plant
flower
Index
Paulownia tomentosa  Paulonia, Foxglove Tree
Family Paulowniaceae
Genus Paulownia  [paw-LO-ne-a]  named by a Dutch botanist named Siebold after Anna Paulowna, daughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia and queen consort of King William II of the Netherlands
Species tomentosa  [to-men-TO-sa]  felted, the leaf underparts
Properties tree
Paulownia tomentosa (common names princesstree, foxglove-tree, empress tree or kiri) is a deciduous tree in the family Paulowniaceae, native to central and western China. Paulownia tomentosa is an extremely fast-growing tree, and is a persistent exotic invasive in North America.
tree in flower
foliage and flower buds
fruit
Index
Phaedranthus buccinatorius  
Family
Genus Phaedranthus    
Species buccinatorius   
Properties climber
Index
Phillyrea angustifolia  
Family Oleeae
Genus Phillyrea  [fil-LER-a-a]  from Gr. philein, to love, in reference to to the lily-like flowers
Species angustifolia   L. narrow-leaved
Properties shrub
Index
Phillyrea latifolia  Green Olive Tree
Family Oleeae
Genus Phillyrea  [fil-LER-a-a]  from Gr. philein, to love, in reference to to the lily-like flowers
Species latifolia   
Properties tree
Phillyrea latifolia, commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, is a species of tree in the family Oleaceae.
Index
Phoenix canariensis  Canary Date Palm
Family Arecaceae
Genus Phoenix    
Species canariensis   from the Canary Islands
Properties tree
Phoenix canariensis is a species of flowering plant in the palm family Arecaceae, native to the Canary Islands. It is a relative of Phoenix dactylifera, the true date palm. It is the natural symbol of the Canary Islands, together with the canary Serinus canaria.
tree
Index
Phoenix dactylifera  Date Palm
Family Arecaceae
Genus Phoenix    
Species dactylifera   
Properties tree
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from lands around Iraq. The species is widely cultivated and is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Date trees typically reach about 70–75 feet (21–23 m) in height, growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. The leaves are 4–6 metres (13–20 ft) long, with spines on the petiole, and pinnate, with about 150 leaflets. The leaflets are 30 cm (12 in) long and 2 cm (0.79 in) wide. The full span of the crown ranges from 6–10 m (20–33 ft).
flowers
fruit
tree
Index
Picea omorika  Serbian Spruce
Family Pinaceae
Genus Picea  [PIS-e-a]  ancient L. name for Spruce, perhaps derived from the L. pix meaning pitch
Species omorika   
Properties tree
Picea omorika, common name Serbian spruce (Serbian: Панчићева оморика, Pančićeva omorika, pronounced [pâːnt͡ʃit͡ɕɛv̞a ɔmɔ̌rika]), is a species of coniferous tree endemic to the Drina River valley in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina near Višegrad, and western Serbia, with a total range of only about 60 ha, at 800–1,600 m (2,625–5,249 ft) altitude. It was originally discovered near the village of Zaovine on the Tara Mountain in 1875, and named by the Serbian botanist Josif Pančić; the specific epithet omorika is simply the Serbian word for "Serbian spruce". All other spruces are smrča (смрча) in Serbian.
Index
Picea orientalis  Oriental Spruce
Family Pinaceae
Genus Picea  [PIS-e-a]  ancient L. name for Spruce, perhaps derived from the L. pix meaning pitch
Species orientalis   of the east
Properties tree
Picea orientalis, commonly known as the Oriental spruce or Caucasian spruce, is a species of spruce native to the Caucasus and adjacent northeast Turkey.
Index
Pinus halepensis  Aleppo Pine
Family Pinaceae
Genus Pinus  [PY-nus]  ancient classical name for a pine tree
Species halepensis   
Properties tree
Pinus halepensis, commonly known as the Aleppo pine, is a pine native to the Mediterranean region. Its range extends from Morocco, Algeria and Spain north to southern France, Italy, Croatia, Montenegro, Albania, and east to Greece, all over Malta and northern Tunisia, with an outlying population (from which it was first described) in Syria, Lebanon, southern Turkey, Jordan, Israel, and Palestinian territories. In Israel it is called Jerusalem pine.
bark
flower
cone
tree
distribution
Index
Pinus nigra  Austrian Pine
Family Pinaceae
Genus Pinus  [PY-nus]  ancient classical name for a pine tree
Species nigra  [NEE-gra]  black
Properties tree
Pinus nigra, the Austrian pine or black pine, is a moderately variable species of pine, occurring across southern Mediterranean Europe from Spain to the eastern Mediterranean on Anatolian peninsula of Turkey and on Corsica/Cyprus, including Crimea, and in the high mountains of the Maghreb in North Africa.
Index
Pinus pinaster  Maritime Pine
Family Pinaceae
Genus Pinus  [PY-nus]  ancient classical name for a pine tree
Species pinaster   old name for the Maritime Pine
Properties tree
Pinus pinaster, the maritime pine or cluster pine, is a pine native to Mediterranean region.
distribution
flower
tree
cones
bark
Index
Pinus pinea  Stone Pine, Umbrella Pine
Family Pinaceae
Genus Pinus  [PY-nus]  ancient classical name for a pine tree
Species pinea   
Properties tree
The stone pine, with the botanical name Pinus pinea, is also called the Italian stone pine, umbrella pine and parasol pine. It is a tree from the pine family (Pinaceae). The tree is native to the Mediterranean region, occurring in Southern Europe, Israel, Lebanon and Syria. It is also naturalized in North Africa, the Canary Islands, South Africa and New South Wales. The species was introduced into North Africa millennia ago, such a long time that it is essentially indistinguishable from being native. Stone pines have been used and cultivated for their edible pine nuts since prehistoric times. They are widespread in horticultural cultivation as ornamental trees, planted in gardens and parks around the world. This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
Index
Pistacia lentiscus  Mastic
Family Anacardiaceae
Genus Pistacia    
Species lentiscus   
Properties tree, dioecious, evergreen
Pistacia lentiscus (also mastic; Greek: μαστίχα mastíkha ) is a dioecious evergreen shrub or small tree of the pistacio genus growing up to 4 m (13 ft) tall which is cultivated for its aromatic resin, mainly on the Greek island of Chios.
flower
berries
Index
Pistacia terebinthus  Turpentine Tree
Family Anacardiaceae
Genus Pistacia    
Species terebinthus   
Properties tree
Pistacia terebinthus, known commonly as terebinth and turpentine tree, is a species of Pistacia, native to the Canary Islands, and the Mediterranean region from the western regions of Morocco, and Portugal to Greece, western and southeast Turkey. In the eastern shores of the Mediterranean sea – Syria, Lebanon and Israel – a similar species, Pistacia palaestina, fills the same ecological niche as this species and is also known as terebinth.
Index
Pistacia vera  Pistacio
Family Anacardiaceae
Genus Pistacia    
Species vera   
Properties tree
The pistachio (/pɪˈstɑːʃiˌoʊ, -ˈstæ-/, Pistacia vera), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East. The tree produces seeds that are widely consumed as food. Pistacia vera often is confused with other species in the genus Pistacia that are also known as pistachio. These other species can be distinguished by their geographic distributions (in the wild) and their seeds which are much smaller and have a soft shell.
distribution
fruit
bark
Index
Pittosporum tobira  Australian Laurel
Family Pittosporaceae
Genus Pittosporum  [pit-TOS-por-um]  from Gr. pitte, tar and sporos, seed the latter being coated with a resinous substance
Species tobira  [to-BI-ra]  Native Japanese name
Properties shrub
Pittosporum tobira is a species of flowering plant in the Pittosporum family known by several common names, including Australian laurel, Japanese pittosporum, mock orange and Japanese cheesewood. It is native to Japan, China, and Korea, but it is used throughout the world as an ornamental plant in landscaping and as cut foliage. It is an evergreen shrub which can reach 10 m (33 ft) tall by 3 m (10 ft) broad, and can become treelike. It can also be trimmed into a hedge. The leaves are oval in shape with edges that curl under and measure up to 10 cm (4 in) in length. They are leathery, hairless, and darker and shinier on the upper surfaces. The inflorescence is a cluster of fragrant flowers occurring at the ends of branches. The flower has five white petals each about a centimetre long. The fruit is a hairy, woody capsule about 1 cm wide divided into three valves. Inside are black seeds in a bed of resinous pulp. The binomial qualifier tobira derives from the Japanese name for the plant. This shrub is a common, drought-tolerant and fairly hardy landscaping plant. Many cultivars have been developed, including dwarf forms and the popular 'Variegata', which has variegated leaves. It is used for hedges, living privacy screens, and indoor and outdoor planter boxes. The stems, leaves, and dried fruits are used in flower arrangements. The species and the cultivar 'Variegatum' have both gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Common pests of this plant include various aphids, mites, and leafhoppers, the cotton cushiony scale (Icerya purchasi), and root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). It can be attacked by the pit-making pittosporum scale (Planchonia arabidis). It is vulnerable to the fungal plant pathogen Erythricium salmonicolor, which causes galls and the dieback disease known as pink limb blight.
flower
leaves
Index
Platanus orientalis  Oriental Plane
Family Platanaceae
Genus Platanus  [PLAT-an-us]  the old Gr. name for the Plane tree, from platus in reference to the palmate leaves or the broad spread of the tree
Species orientalis   of the east
Properties tree
Platanus orientalis, or oriental plane, is a large, deciduous tree of the Platanaceae family, growing to 30 m (98 ft) or more, and known for its longevity and spreading crown.
bark
tree in Tsangarada Pilion
flowers
fruit
Index
Platanus acerifolia  London Plane
Family Platanaceae
Genus Platanus  [PLAT-an-us]  the old Gr. name for the Plane tree, from platus in reference to the palmate leaves or the broad spread of the tree
Species acerifolia  [a-ser-if-O-le-a]  acer-leaved
Properties tree
bark
tree in winter
seeds
Index
Plumbago capensis  Plumbago
Family Plumbaginaceae
Genus Plumbago    
Species capensis   
Properties climber
Plumbago auriculata (common names blue plumbago, Cape plumbago or Cape leadwort), syn. P. capensis, is a species of flowering plant in the family Plumbaginaceae, native to South Africa. It is an evergreen shrub, often grown as a climber, ascending rapidly to 6 m (20 ft) tall by 3 m (10 ft) wide in nature, though much smaller when cultivated as a houseplant. It has light blue to blue flowers and also variations with white (P. auriculata var. alba) or deep blue (P. auriculata 'Royal cape') flowers. The leaves are a glossy green and grow to 5 cm (2 in) long. Plumbago grow best in full sun to part shade. The specific epithet auriculata means "with ears", referring to the shape of the leaves. In temperate regions it may be grown outside in frost free areas, otherwise under glass. The species and the white-flowered form P. auriculata f. alba have both gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Plumbago auriculata is a medicinal herb plant, the name has a root from the Latin word plumbum, meaning lead, because it has some pharmaceutical effects for lead poisoning (Asha Saji, V. T. Antony,2015) . Also its used as a phytoremediator for lead and cadmium. Medicinal uses and phytochemistry: This plant usually used in traditional medicine in India, like treating wounds, broken bones, and headache. Many secondary metabolites have been discovered and isolated from Plumbago auriculata such as Plumbagin, palmitic acids. Propagation: Plumbago auriculata could be propagated sexually by seeds and asexual by cutting in summer. Its need well aerated soil and light. it is also preferring the acidic soil. watering: Plumbago auriculata, have to stages for watering, the first at the beginning of growth, the soil should be always watered, once the plant is standing well, it should be watered in needs only. Nutrition: Plumbago auriculata ma suffer from lacking some nutrients, so it should be fertilized with the appropriate nutrients.
flowers
plant in flower
Index
Paliurus spina-christi  Christ's Thorns
Family Rhamnaceae
Genus Paliurus    
Species spina-christi   
Properties shrub
Paliurus spina-christi, commonly known as Jerusalem thorn, garland thorn, Christ's thorn, or crown of thorns, is a species of Paliurus native to the Mediterranean region and southwest and central Asia, from Morocco and Spain east to Iran and Tajikistan. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 3–4 m tall. The shoots are zig-zagged, with a leaf and two stipular spines (one straight, one curved) on the outside of each kink. The leaves are oval, 2–5 cm long and 1–4 cm broad, glossy green, with an entire margin. The fruit is a dry woody nutlet centred in a circular wing 2–3.5 cm diameter. The name reflects an old legend that the spiny branches were used to make the crown of thorns placed on Christ's head before his crucifixion. It is viewed as an ornamental curiosity and is cultivated in some areas spreading its range, including Fiji. The Christ's Thorn Jujube, is also identified as being used for the thorn crown.
seeds
leaves
flowers and leaves
Index
Populus nigra 'Italica'  Lombardy Poplar
Family
Genus Populus  [POP-u-lus]  the arbor-populus, the tree of the people of the Romans, the Italian Popular being much planted in their cities.
Species nigra  [NEE-gra]  black
Properties tree
Index
Prunus armeniaca  Apricot
Family Rosaceae
Genus Prunus  [PROO-nus]  classical name for the Plum
Species armeniaca   
Properties tree
Prunus armeniaca ("Armenian plum"), the most commonly cultivated apricot species, also called ansu apricot, Siberian apricot, Tibetan apricot, is a species of Prunus, classified with the plum in the subgenus Prunus. The native range is somewhat uncertain due to its extensive prehistoric cultivation, though almost certainly somewhere in Asia. It is extensively cultivated in many countries and has escaped into the wild in many places.
Index
Prunus dulcis  Almond
Synonyms  Prunus amygdalus
Family Rosaceae
Genus Prunus  [PROO-nus]  classical name for the Plum
Species dulcis   
Properties tree
(For other uses, see Almond (disambiguation).)("Badam" redirects here. For some villages in Iran, see Badam (disambiguation).) The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to the Middle East, the Indian Subcontinent and North Africa. "Almond" is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated shell (endocarp) surrounding the seed. The fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed, which is not a true nut, inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are sold shelled or unshelled. Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, which is then removed to reveal the white embryo.
Index
Prunus lusitanica  Portugal Laurel
Family Rosaceae
Genus Prunus  [PROO-nus]  classical name for the Plum
Species lusitanica  [loo-sit-A-nik-a]  Portuguese
Properties shrub
Prunus lusitanica, the Portugal laurel, is a species of the genus Prunus, related to the cherry. It is native to southwestern France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco, and Macaronesia (the Azores, Canary Islands and Madeira).
Index
Prunus persica  Peach
Family Rosaceae
Genus Prunus  [PROO-nus]  classical name for the Plum
Species persica   from Persia
Properties tree
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Shan mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a peach or a nectarine. The specific epithet persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, whence it was transplanted to Europe. It belongs to the genus Prunus which includes the cherry, apricot, almond and plum, in the rose family. The peach is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. Peach and nectarines are the same species, even though they are regarded commercially as different fruits. In contrast to peaches, whose fruits present the characteristic fuzz on the skin, nectarines are characterized by the absence of fruit-skin trichomes (fuzz-less fruit); genetic studies suggest nectarines are produced due to a recessive allele, whereas peaches are produced from a dominant allele for fuzzy skin. The People's Republic of China is the world's largest producer of peaches.
Index
Punica granatum  Pomegranate
Family Lythraceae
Genus Punica    from Malus punica Apple of Carthage, an early name for the Pomogranate
Species granatum   old name
Properties shrub
The pomegranate (/ˈpɒmᵻɡrænᵻt/), botanical name Punica granatum, is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae that grows between 5 and 8 m (16 and 26 ft) tall. In the Northern Hemisphere, the fruit is typically in season from September to February, and in the Southern Hemisphere from March to May. As intact arils or juice, pomegranates are used in cooking, baking, meal garnishes, juice blends, smoothies, and alcoholic beverages, such as cocktails and wine. The pomegranate originated in the region of modern-day Iran and has been cultivated since ancient times throughout the Mediterranean region and northern India. It was introduced into Spanish America in the late 16th century and California by Spanish settlers in 1769. Today, it is widely cultivated throughout the Middle East and Caucasus region, north Africa and tropical Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, the drier parts of southeast Asia, and parts of the Mediterranean Basin. It is also cultivated in parts of California and Arizona. In recent years, it has become more common in the commercial markets of Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
Index
Pyrostegia venusta  Orange trumpetvine
Family Bignoniaceae
Genus Pyrostegia    
Species venusta   
Properties climber
Pyrostegia venusta, also commonly known as flamevine or orange trumpetvine, is a plant species of the genus Pyrostegia of the family Bignoniaceae originally endemic to Brazil, but nowadays a well-known garden species.
flower
climber
Index
Quercus cerris  Turkey Oak
Family Fagaceae
Genus Quercus  [KWER-kus]  Latin name for an oak tree; some authorities derive word form Celtic quer, fine and cuez, a tree
Species cerris  [SER-ris]  The old L. name for the Turkey Oak
Properties tree
Quercus cerris, the Turkey oak or Austrian oak, is an oak native to south-eastern Europe and Asia Minor. It is the type species of Quercus sect. Cerris, a section of the genus characterised by shoot buds surrounded by soft bristles, bristle-tipped leaf lobes, and acorns that usually mature in 18 months.
leaves
tree
flower
acorn
fruit
Index
Quercus coccifera  Kermes Oak
Family Fagaceae
Genus Quercus  [KWER-kus]  Latin name for an oak tree; some authorities derive word form Celtic quer, fine and cuez, a tree
Species coccifera  [kok-SIF-er-a]  L coccus, from the Greek of the Kermes insect and L fera, bearer, alluding to the kermes insect parasitic on this tree, and which yields a crimson dye
Properties shrub
Quercus coccifera, the kermes oak, is an oak in the Quercus section Cerris. It is native to the Mediterranean region and Northern African Maghreb, south to north from Morocco to France and west to east from Portugal to Cyprus and Turkey, crossing Spain, Italy, Libya, Balkans, and Greece, including Crete. The Kermes Oak was historically important as the food plant of the Kermes scale insect, from which a red dye called crimson was obtained. The etymology of the specific name 'coccifera' is related to the production of red cochineal (crimson) dye and derived from Latin coccum which was from Greek κὀκκος, the kermes insect. The Latin -fera means 'bearer'.
acorn
foliage
In Patmos
Index
Quercus ilex  Holm Oak
Family Fagaceae
Genus Quercus  [KWER-kus]  Latin name for an oak tree; some authorities derive word form Celtic quer, fine and cuez, a tree
Species ilex  [I-leks]  ancient L. name for the Holm Oak, now generic name for the hollies which some evergreen oaks resemble
Properties tree
Quercus ilex, the evergreen oak, holly oak or holm oak, is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region. It takes its name from holm, an ancient name for holly. It is a member of the white oak section of the genus, with acorns that mature in a single summer. The first trees to be planted from acorns into England are still to be found growing within the stately grounds of Mamhead Park, Devon. Britton & Brayley said of Mamhead's grounds The Beauties of England and Wales (1803): The TROBI Champion in Gloucestershire measured 27 1⁄4 ft (8.3 m) in circumference at 1.2 m height in 1993. A specimen in Milo, in Sicily, is reputed to be 700 years old while a small population on the slopes of northern village of Wardija in Malta are said to be between 500 and 1,000 years old. Prior to the Carthaginian period, holm oak was prevalent on the islands.
Index
Quercus macrolepis  Valonia oak
Family Fagaceae
Genus Quercus  [KWER-kus]  Latin name for an oak tree; some authorities derive word form Celtic quer, fine and cuez, a tree
Species macrolepis   
Properties tree
Quercus macrolepis, the Valonia oak, is a tree in the family Fagaceae. It used to be considered a subspecies of Quercus ithaburensis or a hybrid of Quercus libani. It appears to be closely related to Quercus brantii but with cupscales less curved and the cup covering almost all the fruit with sunken apex and shorter petiole.
tree
Index
Quercus suber  Cork Oak
Family Fagaceae
Genus Quercus  [KWER-kus]  Latin name for an oak tree; some authorities derive word form Celtic quer, fine and cuez, a tree
Species suber  [SU-ber]  cork - old L. name for the Cork Oak
Properties tree
Quercus suber, commonly called the cork oak, is a medium-sized, evergreen oak tree in the section Quercus sect. Cerris. It is the primary source of cork for wine bottle stoppers and other uses, such as cork flooring. It is native to southwest Europe and northwest Africa. It grows to up to 20 m (66 ft), although it is typically more stunted in its native environment. The leaves are 4 to 7 cm (1.6 to 2.8 in) long, weakly lobed or coarsely toothed, dark green above, paler beneath, with the leaf margins often downcurved. The acorns are 2 to 3 cm (0.79 to 1.18 in) long, in a deep cup fringed with elongated scales.
tree
bark
acorn
Index
Rhamnus alaternus  Mediterranean Blackthorn
Family Rhamnaceae
Genus Rhamnus  [RAM-us]  ancient Gr. name, possibly from rhamnos, a thorny shrub
Species alaternus   an old generic name
Properties shrub
Rhamnus alaternus is a species of flowering plant in the buckthorn family known by the common name of Italian buckthorn or Mediterranean buckthorn.
berries
shrub
Index
Ricinus communis  Castor Oil Plant
Family Euphorbiaceae
Genus Ricinus  [RIS-in-us]  classical L. name possibly from ricinus, a tick or bug which the seed resembles
Species communis  [kom-MU-nis]  common
Properties shrub
Ricinus communis, the castorbean or castor-oil-plant, is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It is the sole species in the monotypic genus, Ricinus, and subtribe, Ricininae. The evolution of castor and its relation to other species are currently being studied using modern genetic tools. It reproduces with a mixed pollination system which favor selfing by geitonogamy but at the same time can be an out-crosser by anemophily or entomophily. Its seed is the castor bean, which, despite its name, is not a true bean. Castor is indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, and India, but is widespread throughout tropical regions (and widely grown elsewhere as an ornamental plant). Castor seed is the source of castor oil, which has a wide variety of uses. The seeds contain between 40% and 60% oil that is rich in triglycerides, mainly ricinolein. The seed also contains ricin, a water-soluble toxin, which is also present in lower concentrations throughout the plant. An unrelated plant species, Fatsia japonica, is similar in appearance and known as the false castor oil plant.
plant
flowers
Index
Rosmarinus officinalis  Rosemary
Family Lamiaceae
Genus Rosmarinus    
Species officinalis   
Properties shrub
Rosmarinus officinalis, commonly known as rosemary, is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae, which includes many other herbs. The name "rosemary" derives from the Latin for "dew" (ros) and "sea" (marinus), or "dew of the sea". The plant is also sometimes called anthos, from the ancient Greek word ἄνθος, meaning "flower". Rosemary has a fibrous root system.
Index
Roystonea regia  Royal Palm
Family Arecaceae
Genus Roystonea    
Species regia  [RE-je-a]  royal
Properties tree
Roystonea regia, commonly known as the Cuban royal palm, Florida royal palm, or simply the royal palm is a species of palm which is native to southern Florida, Mexico and parts of Central America and the Caribbean. A large and attractive palm, it has been planted throughout the tropics and subtropics as an ornamental tree. Although it is sometimes called R. elata, the conserved name R. regia is now the correct name for the species. Populations in Cuba and Florida were long seen as separate species, but are now considered to belong to a single species. Best known as an ornamental, R. regia is also used as a source of thatch, construction timber, and in some forms of so-called traditional medicine, although there is currently no valid scientific evidence to support the efficacy or use of any palm species for medicinal purposes. The fruit is eaten by birds and bats (which disperse the seeds) and fed to livestock. Its flowers are visited by birds and bats, and it serves as a roosting site and food source for a variety of animals. Roystonea regia is the national tree of Cuba, and has a religious role both in Santería and Christianity, where it is used in Palm Sunday observances.
Index
Styphnolobium japonicum  Pagoda Tree, Scholar's Tree
Family Fabaceae
Genus Styphnolobium    
Species japonicum   from Japan
Properties tree
Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott, the Japanese pagoda tree (Chinese scholar tree, pagoda tree; syn. Sophora japonica) is a species of tree in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. It was formerly included within a broader interpretation of the genus Sophora. The species of Styphnolobium differ from Sophora in lacking the ability to form symbioses with rhizobia (nitrogen fixing bacteria) on their roots. It also differs from the related genus Calia (mescalbeans) in having deciduous leaves and flowers in axillary, not terminal, racemes. The leaves are alternate, pinnate, with 9-21 leaflets, and the flowers in pendulous racemes similar to those of the Black locust.
tree
leaves
seed pods
flowers
bark
Index
Schinus molle  Pepper Tree, Peruvian Mastic Tree
Family Anacardiaceae
Genus Schinus    
Species molle   
Properties tree
Schinus molle (Peruvian pepper , also known as American pepper, Peruvian peppertree, escobilla, false pepper, molle del Peru, pepper tree, peppercorn tree, Californian pepper tree, pirul and Peruvian mastic) is an evergreen tree that grows to 15 meters (50 feet). It is native to the Peruvian Andes. The bright pink fruits of Schinus molle are often sold as "pink peppercorns" although S. molle is unrelated to true pepper (Piper nigrum). The tree is host to Bombycomorpha bifascia, known as the Pepper-tree moth.
bark
berries
flowers
foliage
Index
Spartium junceum  Spanish Broom
Family Genisteae
Genus Spartium    
Species junceum   
Properties shrub
Spartium junceum, commonly known as Spanish broom or weaver's broom, is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae, native to the Mediterranean in southern Europe, southwest Asia and northwest Africa, where it is found in sunny sites, usually on dry, sandy soils. It is the sole species in the genus Spartium, but is closely related to the other brooms in the genera Cytisus and Genista. There are many binomials in Spartium that are of dubious validity (see below). The Latin specific epithet junceum means "rush-like", referring to the shoots, which show a passing resemblance to those of the rush genus Juncus.
Index
Tamarix aphylla  Tamerisk
Family Tamaricaceae
Genus Tamarix  [TAM-ar-iks]  from Tamaris (Tambro) a river in Spain
Species aphylla   Gr without leaves
Properties tree
Tamarix aphylla is the largest known species of Tamarix (height: to 18 metres–60 ft). The species has a variety of common names, including Athel tamarisk, Athel tree, Athel pine, and saltcedar. It is an evergreen tree, native across North, East and Central Africa, through the Middle East, and into parts of Western and Southern Asia.
Index
Tamarix gallica  Tamerisk
Family Tamaricaceae
Genus Tamarix  [TAM-ar-iks]  from Tamaris (Tambro) a river in Spain
Species gallica   French
Properties tree
amarix gallica, the French tamarisk, is a deciduous, herbaceous, twiggy shrub or small tree reaching up to about 5 meters high. It is indigenous to Saudi Arabia and the Sinai Peninsula, and very common around the Mediterranean region. It is present in many other areas as an invasive introduced species, often becoming a noxious weed. It was first described for botanical classification by the taxonomist Carl Linnaeus in 1753, but had already been in cultivation since 1596.
flowers
tree
Index
Tecomaria capensis  Cape Honeysuckle
Family Bignoniaceae
Genus Tecomaria    
Species capensis   
Properties climber
Tecoma capensis (common name Cape honeysuckle) is a species of flowering plant in the family Bignoniaceae, native to southern Africa. Despite its common name, it is not closely related to the true honeysuckle.
Index
Platycladus orientalis  Chinese Thuja
Synonyms  Thuja orientalis
Family Cupressaceae
Genus Platycladus    
Species orientalis   of the east
Properties tree
Platycladus is a distinct genus of evergreen coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae, containing only one species, Platycladus orientalis, also known as Chinese thuja, Oriental arborvitae, Chinese arborvitae, biota or oriental thuja. It is native to northwestern China, Korea, and the Russian Far East (Amur + Khabarovsk). It is also now naturalised as an introduced species elsewhere in Asia: eastward to Japan; southward to northern India; and westward to northern Iran.
tree
foliage and female cones
foliage
Index
Viburnum tinus  Laurrestinus
Family Adoxaceae
Genus Viburnum  [vi-BUR-num]  old L. name for V. lantana
Species tinus   old L. name
Properties shrub
Viburnum tinus (Laurustinus, laurustinus viburnum, or laurestine) is a species of flowering plant in the family Adoxaceae, native to the Mediterranean area of Europe and North Africa. Laurus signifies the leaves' similarities to bay laurel.
bush
flowers
leaf
berries
Index
Vinca major  Greater Periwinkle
Family Apocynaceae
Genus Vinca    
Species major   
Properties climber
Vinca major, with the common names bigleaf periwinkle, large periwinkle, greater periwinkle and blue periwinkle, is species of flowering plant in the family Apocynaceae, native to the western Mediterranean. Growing to 25 cm (10 in) tall and spreading indefinitely, it is an evergreen perennial, frequently used in cultivation as groundcover.
Index
Vitex agnus-castus  Chaste Tree
Family Verbenaceae
Genus Vitex    
Species agnus-castus   
Properties shrub
Vitex agnus-castus, also called vitex, chaste tree, chasteberry, Abraham's balm, lilac chastetree, or monk's pepper, is a native of the Mediterranean region. It is one of the few temperate-zone species of Vitex, which is on the whole a genus of tropical and sub-tropical flowering plants. Theophrastus mentioned the shrub several times, as agnos (άγνος) in Enquiry into Plants. It has been long believed to be an anaphrodisiac but its effectiveness remains controversial.
leaves
tree
flower
Index
Vitis vinifera  Grape Vine
Family Vitaceae
Genus Vitis    
Species vinifera   
Properties shrub
Vitis vinifera (common grape vine) is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and southwestern Asia, from Morocco and Portugal north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran. There are currently between 5,000 and 10,000 varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes though only a few are of commercial significance for wine and table grape production. It is a liana growing to 35 yards (32 m) in length, with flaky bark. The leaves are alternate, palmately lobed, 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) long and broad. The fruit is a berry, known as a grape; in the wild species it is 6 mm (0.24 in) diameter and ripens dark purple to blackish with a pale wax bloom; in cultivated plants it is usually much larger, up to 3 cm (1.2 in) long, and can be green, red, or purple (black). The species typically occurs in humid forests and streamsides. The wild grape is often classified as V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris (in some classifications considered Vitis sylvestris), with V. vinifera subsp. vinifera restricted to cultivated forms. Domesticated vines have hermaphrodite flowers, but subsp. sylvestris is dioecious (male and female flowers on separate plants) and pollination is required for fruit to develop. The grape is eaten fresh, processed to make wine or juice, or dried to produce raisins. Cultivars of Vitis vinifera form the basis of the majority of wines produced around the world. All of the familiar wine varieties belong to Vitis vinifera, which is cultivated on every continent except for Antarctica, and in all the major wine regions of the world.
plant
leaf
flower
fruit
Index
Washingtonia filifera  Fan-leaved Palm
Family Arecaceae
Genus Washingtonia    
Species filifera   
Properties tree
Washingtonia filifera, also known as desert fan palm or California fan palm or California palm, is a flowering plant in the palm family (Arecaceae), and native to the southwestern U.S. and Baja California. Growing to 15–20 m (49–66 ft) tall by 3–6 m (10–20 ft) broad, it is an evergreen monocot with a tree-like growth habit. It has a sturdy columnar trunk and waxy fan-shaped (palmate) leaves.
tree
Index
Ziziphus jujube  Common Jujube
Family Rhamnaceae
Genus Ziziphus    
Species jujube   
Properties shrub
Ziziphus jujuba (from Greek ζίζυφον, zízyphon), commonly called jujube (/ˈdʒuːdʒuːb/; sometimes jujuba), red date, Chinese date, Korean date, or Indian date is a species of Ziziphus in the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae). It is used primarily as a shade tree that also bears fruit.
Index
Juniperus communis  Common Juniper
Family Cupressaceae
Genus Juniperus  [ju-NIP-er-us]  old L. name
Species communis  [kom-MU-nis]  common
Properties tree
Juniperus communis, the common juniper, is a species of conifer in the genus Juniperus, in the family Cupressaceae. It has the largest geographical range of any woody plant, with a circumpolar distribution throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic south in mountains to around 30°N latitude in North America, Europe and Asia. Relict populations can be found in the Atlas Mountains of Africa.
Index
Robinia pseudoacacia  Robinia, False Acacia
Family Fabaceae
Genus Robinia  [rob-IN-e-a]  named after Jean Robin, a French botanist and herbalist to Henry IV of France
Species pseudoacacia   false acacia
Properties tree
Robinia pseudoacacia, commonly known in its native territory as black locust, is a medium-sized deciduous tree native to the southeastern United States, but it has been widely planted and naturalized elsewhere in temperate North America, Europe, Southern Africa and Asia and is considered an invasive species in some areas. Another common name is false acacia, a literal translation of the specific name It was introduced into Britain in 1636.
Index
Calicotome spinosa  Thorny Broom
Family Fabaceae
Genus Calicotome    
Species spinosa   
Properties shrub
Calicotome spinosa (known as thorny broom or spiny broom) is a very spiny, densely branched shrub of the legume family Fabaceae which can reach up to three metres in height. It grows in the Western Mediterranean region on sunny slopes and dry, rocky ground. It is found in Spain, France, Italy, Croatia and Algeria and has been introduced to New Zealand. From March to June it produces bright yellow flowers which are borne singly or in small clusters. The seed-pods are 30mm long and are almost hairless, unlike those of the similar species Calicotome villosa.
flowers
shrub
Index
Liquidambar orientalis  Turkish sweetgum
Family Altingiaceae
Genus Liquidambar  [li-kwid am-BAR]  from L. liquidus, liquid and ambar, Arabic amber from the fragrant resin
Species orientalis   of the east
Properties tree
Liquidambar orientalis, commonly known as oriental sweetgum or Turkish sweetgum, is a deciduous tree in the genus Liquidambar, native to the eastern Mediterranean region, that occurs as pure stands mainly in the floodplains of southwestern Turkey and on the Greek island of Rhodes.
Index
Bauhinia variegata  Orchid tree
Family Fabaceae
Genus Bauhinia    
Species variegata   
Properties Antalya
Bauhinia variegata is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae. It is native to South Asia and Southeast Asia, from southern China, Burma, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Common names include orchid tree, camel's foot tree, kachnar and mountain-ebony.
It is a small to medium-sized tree growing to 10–12 metres (33–39 ft) tall, deciduous in the dry season. The leaves are 10–20 centimetres (3.9–7.9 in) obcordate shaped, long and broad, rounded, and bilobed at the base and apex. The flowers are conspicuous, bright pink or white, 8–12 centimetres (3.1–4.7 in) diameter, with five petals. The fruit is a pod 15–30 centimetres (5.9–11.8 in) long, containing several seeds.
leaves
tree
flower
Index
Leucaena leucocephala  
Family Fabaceae
Genus Leucaena    
Species leucocephala   
Properties Antalya
Index
Eucalyptus camaldulensis  
Family Myrtaceae
Genus Eucalyptus  [u-kal-IP-tus]  Gr. eu, good or well and calypha, covered in allusion to the calyx which covers the flower like a lid
Species camaldulensis   
Properties Antalya
Index
Ficus retusa  
Family Moraceae
Genus Ficus  [FI-kus]  the L. name for a Fig tree and one common in many European languages. Believed to be derived from the Hebrew name fag
Species retusa   
Properties Antalya
Index
Washingtonia robusta  
Family Arecaceae
Genus Washingtonia    
Species robusta   
Properties Antalya
Index
Syagrus romanzoffiana  
Family Arecaceae
Genus Syagrus    
Species romanzoffiana   
Properties Antalya
Index
Pinus brutia  
Family Pinaceae
Genus Pinus  [PY-nus]  ancient classical name for a pine tree
Species brutia   
Properties Antalya
Index
Grevillea robusta  Silky Oak
Family Proteceae
Genus Grevillea    
Species robusta   
Properties Antalya, Bodrum
Grevillea robusta, commonly known as the southern silky oak, silk oak or silky oak, silver oak or Australian silver oak, is a flowering plant in the family Proteaceae. It is a tree, the largest species in its genus but is not closely related to the true oaks, Quercus. It is a native of eastern coastal Australia, growing in riverine, subtropical and dry rainforest environments.
leaves
fruit
Index
Ceiba speciosa  
Synonyms  Chorisia speciosa
Family Bombacaceae
Genus Ceiba    
Species speciosa   
Properties Antalya
tree
flower
trunk
tree
leaves
seeds
Index
Cupressus arizonica  
Family Cupressaceae
Genus Cupressus  [ku-PRES-sus]  classical name, said to be from Gr. kuo, to produce, parisos, equal, alluding to the symmetrical form of the Italian Cypress
Species arizonica   from Arizona
Properties Antalya
Index
Ligustrum japonicum  
Family Oleaceae
Genus Ligustrum  [li-GUS-trum]  L. name for privet, possibly from L. ligo to bind, the twigs having been used for tying
Species japonicum   from Japan
Properties Antalya
Index
Prunus nigra  
Family Rosaceae
Genus Prunus  [PROO-nus]  classical name for the Plum
Species nigra  [NEE-gra]  black
Properties Antalya
Index
Thevetia peruvina  
Family Apocynacea
Genus Thevetia    
Species peruvina   
Properties Antalya
Index
Taxus baccata  
Family Taxaceae
Genus Taxus  [TAKS-us]  L. name for yew perhaps from taxon a bow,the wood having once been used in their making
Species baccata  [bak-KA-ta]  berried
Properties Antalya
Index
Malus floribundo  
Family Rosaceae
Genus Malus    from Gr malon, apple
Species floribundo   
Properties Antalya
Index
Prunus cerasifera-nigra  
Family Rosaceae
Genus Prunus  [PROO-nus]  classical name for the Plum
Species cerasifera-nigra   
Properties Antalya
Index